Official name Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn (Kingdom of Bahrain)
Form of government constitutional monarchy with a parliament comprising two bodies (Shura Council ; Council of Representatives )
Head of state King: Ḥamad ibn ʿIsā Āl Khalīfah
Head of government Prime Minister: Khalīfah ibn Sulmān Āl Khalīfah
Official language Arabic
Official religion Islam
Monetary unit Bahraini dinar (BD)
Population (2013 est.) 1,212,000COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 296
Total area (sq km) 767
- Urban: (2009) 88.5%
- Rural: (2009) 11.5%
Life expectancy at birth
- Male: (2009) 75.8 years
- Female: (2009) 80 years
Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate
- Male: (2010) 92.8%
- Female: (2010) 90.2%
GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2013) 19,560
1All seats are appointed by the king.
- 1 Background of Bahrain
- 2 Geography of Bahrain
- 3 Demography of Bahrain
- 4 The Economy of Bahrain
- 5 Government and society of Bahrain
- 6 Cultural life of Bahrain
- 7 History of Bahrain
- 8 Bahrain - Language, Culture, Customs and Business Etiquette
- 9 Etiquette and Customs in Bahrain
- 10 Business Etiquette and Protocol in Bahrain
- 11 Manama -National capital, Bahrain
- 12 Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain
- 13 Bahrain in 2009
- 14 Bahrain in 2007
- 15 Bahrain in 2005
- 16 Bahrain in 2004
- 17 Disclaimer
Background of Bahrain
Bahrain, small Arab state situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island and some 30 smaller islands. Its name is from the Arabic term al-bahrayn, meaning “two seas.”
Located in one of the world’s chief oil-producing regions, Bahrain itself has only small stores of petroleum. Instead, its economy has long relied on processing crude oil from neighbouring countries, and more recently the financial, commercial services, and communications sectors have grown markedly, as has tourism. The country’s chief city, port, and capital, Manama (Al-Manāmah), is located on the northeastern tip of Bahrain Island. A strikingly modern city, Manama is relaxed and cosmopolitan and is a favourite destination for visitors from neighbouring Saudi Arabia; on weekends, crowds of Saudis converge on the city to enjoy its restaurants and bars. Yet the people of Bahrain remain conservative in their lifeways. This sentiment is enshrined in the country’s constitution, which affirms that “the family is the cornerstone of society, the strength of which lies in religion, ethics, and patriotism.”
Bahrain is renowned for its verdant groves of date palms; since ancient times it has been an entrepôt for trade and a source of natural resources for the surrounding area. Bahrain Island is widely believed to be the site of the ancient kingdom of Dilmun, a commercial centre that traded with ancient Sumer. It has been settled and colonized by various groups, including the Khalīfah family (Āl Khalīfah), a native Arab dynasty that has ruled Bahrain since the late 18th century. Recognizing the islands’ strategic importance, the Khalīfah have opened Bahrain’s port facilities to the naval fleets of foreign countries, including the United States.
It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world; about 89% of the population lives in the two principal cities of Manama and Al Muharraq.
The Kingdom of Bahrain is an archipelago made up of 33 islands located in the Arabian Gulf between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Its total area is 780 km2. Manama is the capital of Bahrain and also its largest city. Manama enjoys a distinct reputation as a tourism and cultural hub regionally and internationally, as shown by its selection as the Capital of Arab Culture in 2012, and Capital of Arab Tourism in 2013, and Capital of Asian Tourism in 2014. Bahrain is a country that prides itself in being a thriving multi-cultural hub which welcomes people from all around the world, thanks to its tolerant attitudes, low cost of living, and abundance of educational and health facilities and services. According to the latest e-Government portal statistics, Bahrain’s population is currently around 1.2 million Bahrainis and residents. Bahrain is considered an important regional economic and financial hub, and is home to a large number of global financial services companies. The country also laid out a comprehensive and integrated economic vision which aims to make its economy more sustainable by the year 2030. The earliest human settlement in Bahrain’s islands dates back almost 4,000 years. Over that time, it was inhabited by a series of different civilizations, starting with Dilmun, then Tylos, and finally the Islamic period.
Geography of Bahrain
Bahrain’s total land area is slightly greater than that of Singapore. Saudi Arabia lies to the west across the Gulf of Bahrain, while the Qatar peninsula lies to the east. The King Fahd Causeway, 15 miles (24 km) long, links Bahrain to Saudi Arabia.
The state consists of two separate groups of islands, which together extend about 30 miles (50 km) from north to south and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west. The island of Bahrain accounts for seven-eighths of the country’s total land area and is surrounded by smaller islands. Two of these—Al-Muḥarraq and Sitrah, both to the northeast—are joined to Bahrain Island by causeways that have facilitated residential and industrial development; other islands in the group are Nabī Ṣāliḥ, Al-Muḥammadiyyah (Umm al-Ṣabbān), Umm al-Naʿsān (linked by the King Fahd Causeway), and Jiddah. The second group consists of the Ḥawār Islands, which are situated near the coast of Qatar, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Bahrain Island; a dispute with Qatar over ownership of the islands was resolved in 2001, when the International Court of Justice awarded them to Bahrain. Small and rocky, they are inhabited by only a few fishermen and quarry workers, but they are believed to hold petroleum and natural gas reserves.
- Relief and drainage
While the small islands in both groups are rocky and low-lying, rising only a few feet above sea level, the main island is more varied in appearance. Geologically, the island consists of gently folded layers of sedimentary rocks: limestones, sandstones, and marls (loose clay, sand, or silt) formed during the Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene periods (i.e., from about 145 to 2.6 million years ago). The central region is rocky and barren, rising to 440 feet (134 metres) above sea level at Al-Dukhān Hill (Jabal Al-Dukhān), the country’s highest point. The southern and western lowlands consist of a bleak sandy plain with some salt marshes, while the northern and northwestern coasts afford a striking contrast, forming a narrow belt of date palms and vegetable gardens irrigated from prolific springs and wells that tap artesian water. The source of this water is precipitation on the western mountains of Saudi Arabia. The abundance of fresh water has provided Bahrain with fertile land, from which it gained importance historically as a harbour and trading centre in the Persian Gulf. Economic developments and population growth have outstripped the available artesian water in the country, and some three-fifths of the water used now comes from seawater desalinization plants powered by natural gas.
Summer in Bahrain is unpleasant, as high temperatures frequently coincide with high humidity. Midday temperatures from May to October exceed 90 °F (32 °C), often reaching 95 °F (35 °C) or higher; summer nights are sultry and humid. Winters are cooler and more pleasant, with mean temperatures from December to March dipping to 70 °F (21 °C). Rainfall is confined to the winter months and averages only 3 inches (75 mm) per year, but this may vary from almost nothing to double that amount. On average, rain falls only about 10 days a year. Sunshine is abundant year-round. The predominant wind is the damp, northwesterly shamāl; the qaws, a hot, dry south wind, is less frequent and brings sand, dust, and low humidity.
- Plant and animal life
Some 200 different species of desert plants grow in the bare, arid portions of the archipelago, while the irrigated and cultivated areas of the islands support fruit trees, fodder crops, and vegetables. The variety of animals is limited by the desert conditions. Gazelle and hares are not yet extinct, and lizards and jerboas (desert rodents) are common; the mongoose—probably imported from India—is found in the irrigated areas. Birdlife is sparse except in spring and autumn, when many varieties of migratory birds rest temporarily in Bahrain while traveling to and from higher temperate latitudes.
Demography of Bahrain
- Ethnic groups
Roughly two-thirds of the population is Arab, and most inhabitants are native-born Bahrainis, but some are Palestinians, Omanis, or Saudis. Foreign-born inhabitants, comprising more than one-third of the population, are mostly from Iran, India, Pakistan, Britain, and the United States. About three-fifths of the labour force is foreign.
Arabic is the official language of Bahrain. English is widely used, however, and is a compulsory second language at all schools. Persian is also common, although it is spoken mostly in the home. A number of other languages are spoken among expatriates in Bahrain, including Urdu, Hindi, and Tagalog.
The population is more than four-fifths Muslim and includes both the Sunni and the Shīʿite sects, with the latter in the majority. The ruling family and many of the wealthier and more influential Bahrainis are Sunni, and this difference has been an underlying cause of political and social tension. Christians constitute about half of the remaining one-fifth of the population, with the rest consisting of Jews, Hindus, and Bahāʾīs.
- Settlement patterns
The majority of the population now dwells in towns, but in the north and northwest of the main island, where irrigation has long been carried out using artesian water, there are numerous small villages and isolated dwellings where horticulture is the way of life. This area has an aspect of great fertility, which contrasts starkly with the bare desert appearance of much of the country. Villages consist, for the most part, of substantial flat-roofed houses built of stone or concrete. Some of the temporary settlements of fishermen and the poor are still constructed of barasti (branches of the date palm). There is little permanent settlement either in the southern half of Bahrain Island or on the smaller islands.
More than one-third of the population lives in the two principal cities, Manama and Al-Muḥarraq. Manama, with its port of Mīnāʾ Salmān, is the largest city and contains the main government offices, the business and financial district, many large hotels, Western-style shops, and a traditional Arab souk (market). It has a distinctly modern appearance as compared with Al-Muḥarraq, which is densely settled and has many narrow, winding streets. Other major settlements are ʿAwālī, near the centre of Bahrain Island, built largely for expatriate employees of the Bahrain Petroleum Company B.S.C. (Bapco); Madīnat ʿĪsā (Isa Town), a community established by the government in 1968; the sizable settlements of Al-Rifāʿ al-Shamālī (North Rifāʿ), Al-Rifāʿ al-Sharqī (East Rifāʿ), and Al-Rifāʿ al-Gharbī (West Rifāʿ); and Madīnat Ḥamad, completed in 1984.
- Demographic trends
The population of Bahrain has been steadily growing, increasing almost 2 percent a year. Life expectancy is high, with males living on average to about 71 and females to 76. The death rate is well below the world average, and the major causes of death are diseases of the circulatory or respiratory system and cancer. More than one-fourth of the population is under the age of 15.
The Economy of Bahrain
Though it was the first emirate where oil was discovered (1932), Bahrain will most likely be the first to exhaust its reserves. Consequently, Bahrain has developed one of the most diversified economies in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain’s economic activity, like that of other Arab states in the Persian Gulf, has largely centred on the production of crude oil and natural gas and on refining petroleum products, making the country sensitive to fluctuations in the world oil market. Bahrain has built on its long tradition of shipping and commerce, however, and has been more successful than some other states in the gulf in developing manufacturing and commercial and financial services. The non-oil sector includes petrochemicals, ship repair, aluminum refining, and light manufacturing. The government-owned Aluminum Bahrain B.S.C. (Alba), one of the world’s largest aluminum smelters, and Bapco have been profitable, but this has provided less incentive for privatization. Bahrain has remained the most important commercial and financial centre in the gulf, although it has faced growing competition from the United Arab Emirates.
- Agriculture and fishing
Less than 3 percent of Bahrain is arable, and agriculture contributes only a marginal proportion of the gross national product. The majority of Bahrain’s food is imported, but agricultural production meets some local needs, including a large portion of vegetables and dairy products. Tomatoes, dates, bananas, citrus fruits, mangoes, pomegranates, and alfalfa (lucerne) are among the main crops. Cattle breeding and poultry farming are also encouraged by the government, while camels and horses are bred for racing. The increasingly polluted waters of the gulf, mainly caused by spillages from Kuwaiti oil installations during the Persian Gulf War, have killed off economically valuable marine life (notably shrimp) that were important to the fishing industry. Fisheries have remained largely unexploited despite some government attempts to privatize and modernize the industry.
- Resources and power
Bahrain’s oil production has always been small by Middle Eastern standards, and refining crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia has been of much greater importance since vast oil fields were discovered on the mainland; in 1998 Bapco began a major modernization project for its refinery. Bahrain’s only oil field, Al-Baḥrayn (also known as Awali), is rapidly depleting. Several oil companies, however, have been granted exploration rights by the government. The country’s offshore natural gas supplies are somewhat more substantial. Petroleum and natural gas resources and production are nationalized, but in the 1990s the government began encouraging foreign investment in the sector.
The traditional industries of Bahrain were building dhows (lateen-rigged sailing vessels), fishing, pearling, and the manufacture of reed mats. These activities are now carried out on only a small scale.
Ship repair is handled at Mīnāʾ Salmān, near Manama, and at a large yard operated on Al-ʿAzl Island. Light industries include the production of building materials, furniture, soft drinks, plastics, and a wide range of consumer goods. The government has a significant financial stake in all these modern industries. In addition to the aluminum smelter operated by Alba, an aluminum rolling mill was opened in 1986 that manufactures such products as door and window frames.
The government has encouraged the growth of banking, insurance, and other financial services, and consequently Bahrain has become an important financial centre, notably of offshore banking. These activities have increasingly contributed to the country’s balance of payments. Bahrain has also been able to benefit from its long tradition as a commercial centre. The country’s central bank is the Bahrain Monetary Agency, which also issues the Bahraini dinar, the national currency. In addition to offshore banking units, there are local and foreign commercial banks, as well as investment banks. The Bahrain Stock Exchange opened in 1989.
Bahrain’s main import is the crude petroleum brought in by underwater pipeline from Saudi Arabia to be refined. Other major imports are machinery, food, and chemicals. The primary exports are refined petroleum products and aluminum goods. Saudi Arabia is the principal trading partner, and the United States and Japan are also important.
Services, including public administration, defense, and retail sales, employ some three-fifths of Bahrain’s workforce and also account for about three-fifths of the gross domestic product (GDP). The service sector, particularly tourism, is the fastest growing area of the economy.
Tourism is actively promoted by the government, and, with its balmy climate and scenic location, the country is a growing tourist destination. Travelers from other, more conservative Persian Gulf countries—who comprise the largest number of visitors—are attracted to Bahrain’s more liberal society. Visitors from outside the region come for the country’s climate and to experience its unique cultural wealth.
- Labour and taxation
The majority of the workforce is men, with women constituting about one-fifth of the total. Women, however, are encouraged to work by the government, especially as a means of increasing indigenous employment. Beginning in the 1970s, non-Bahrainis have comprised a large portion of the country’s workforce; by the end of the 20th century, two-thirds of those working were foreigners. There are no unions in Bahrain, which, although legal, are discouraged by the government. The standard work week is Saturday through Wednesday.
Bahrain has no individual income tax, and its only corporate tax is levied on oil, petroleum, and gas companies. Taxes account for less than one-third of the country’s revenue.
- Transportation and telecommunications
Bahrain Island has an excellent system of paved roads, and its causeway connections to Al-Muḥarraq and Sitrah islands and to Saudi Arabia facilitate travel. There are no railroads, but the principal towns and villages are well served by bus and taxi services; a large proportion of residents also own motor vehicles. Bahrain International Airport on Al-Muḥarraq Island is one of the busiest airports in the Middle East and is served by most major international airlines. Manama is the headquarters of Gulf Air, owned by the governments of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Steamers run scheduled service from Bahrain to other gulf ports and to Pakistan and India.
Bahrain Telecommunications Company (Batelco), established in 1981, serves the country’s telephone, wireless telephone, data communications, and Internet needs, either directly or through its subsidiaries. Through Batelco, Bahrain has promoted itself as a regional telecommunications centre, connecting the countries of the gulf region with the broader world. In 1998 Batelco opened an underwater fibre-optic cable network linking Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.
Government and society of Bahrain
- Constitutional framework
Since the 18th century, the head of the Āl Khalīfah, the country’s ruling family, has taken the title emir. A constitution promulgated in 2002 established Bahrain as a constitutional hereditary monarchy whose head of state is now titled king. Under the new constitution the executive is composed of a prime minister, who is head of government, and a Council of Ministers, all of whom are appointed by the king. The legislative branch consists of two houses: a 40-member Consultative Council that is also appointed by the king and a 40-member Chamber of Deputies that is elected by universal adult suffrage. The voting age is 20 years. Members of both deliberative bodies serve terms of four years. Women, in addition to voting, may stand for local and national elections. An earlier constitution (1973) created a National Assembly composed of appointed members and others elected by popular vote, but after a period of labour unrest and political agitation the assembly was dissolved by the emir in 1975. Public representation thereupon reverted to the traditional Arab and Islamic system of a majlis (council), through which citizens and other residents presented petitions directly to the emir. In 1993 the emir created the Consultative Council, to which the first women were appointed in 2000.
Bahrain’s legal system is based on Islamic law (Sharīʿah) and English common law. The highest court in the country is the High Civil Appeals Court, and there are separate courts for members of Sunni and Shīʿite sects. When the royal family faced growing unrest in the 1990s from protesters, predominantly Shīʿite Muslims calling for a restoration of the constitution, a special court was established to prosecute dissenters.
- Political process
In light of the political unrest of the 1990s, Ḥamad ibn ʿĪsā Āl Khalīfah, after succeeding his father to the throne in 1999, promised political reforms. In 2001 a national referendum approved a new document, the National Action Charter (NAC), and the new constitution appeared the following year.
Participation in the military is voluntary, and males can enter service at age 15. The country maintains a large military and police force relative to its population, but it is one of the smallest in the region. In 1991, following the Persian Gulf War, Bahrain signed a defense cooperation agreement with the United States. Bahrain is the headquarters for the U.S. Navy’s Fifth Fleet. The United Kingdom maintains a small military presence.
- Health and welfare
Medical care is extensive and free, and there is provision for most forms of social security: pensions, sick pay, compensation for industrial injury, unemployment benefits, and maternity and family allowance payments. The government also sponsors public housing projects that are partially funded by its gulf neighbors.
Bahrain’s constitution requires the government to help provide housing for any citizens unable to obtain adequate shelter through their own resources. Nearly three-fifths of all Bahrainis have benefited from government housing assistance in some way, and the government has likewise expended significant resources in recent decades to develop associated infrastructure. In 2001 the government inaugurated a new program to extend housing assistance to rural towns and villages.
Bahrain’s public education system, founded in 1932, is the oldest in the Arabian Peninsula. Public education is free for both boys and girls at the primary, intermediate, and secondary levels and is mandatory for all children aged 6 to 14. Private and religious schools are available as well. The University of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf University, and the College of Health Sciences are institutions of higher learning. The vast majority of the population is literate, and Bahrain has the highest female literacy rate in the Persian Gulf.
Cultural life of Bahrain
Bahrain’s island location has made it unique among Persian Gulf states. With greater access to ocean travel and broader exposure to outside influences, Bahrain traditionally has been home to a more ethnically and religiously diverse and cosmopolitan population than have other, more insular gulf states. This openness is reflected in Bahrain’s social customs, which—although still conservative—are much more moderate and relaxed than those of its neighbours, particularly conservative Saudi Arabia. Thus, although Bahrain is still at heart an Arab-Islamic country, it has been more accepting of modernization and Westernization than many of its neighbours.
- Daily life and social customs
The official holidays in Bahrain are generally the same as those observed in most Muslim countries. These include the two ʿīds (festivals), ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā, the Prophet Muhammad’s birthday, and, more recently, the celebration of ʿĀshūrā among the country’s Shīʿites.
Western-style clothing is common in Bahrain, though some men still wear the traditional thawb (full-length tunic) and the kaffiyeh (white head cloth), bound in place by a black, camel-hair cord known as an ʿiqāl—the latter often more ornate, particularly among the political elite. The dress rules for women are relaxed compared to the more conservative, regional standards, although women in rural areas, and those in conservative communities in cities, still wear the veil (ḥijāb) and a traditional long cloak known as an ʿabāyah.
Coffee is an important part of social life. Coffee shops are popular meeting places, and coffee is offered as a sign of hospitality. It is often flavoured with cardamom and saffron. Bahraini cuisine typically features fish, shrimp, meat, rice, and dates. Machbous is a popular traditional dish of fish or meat served with rice. Other typical food includes muḥammar, sweet brown rice with sugar or dates, and shāwarmah, spit-roasted lamb, beef, or chicken.
- The arts
Traditional handicraft industries receive state and popular support, and most villages practice specialized traditions; ʿĀlī, for example, is well known for its ceramics, while artists in Karbābād weave baskets from date-palm leaves. Throughout the country artisans engage in gold working, tinsmithing, and textile making and sell their wares at small shops or the Souk al-Arabaʿāʾ (“Wednesday Market”) in Manama. Shipyards at Manama and Al-Muḥarraq are sites of dhow building, a highly respected art form. The museum in Manama contains local artifacts dating from antiquity, such as ivory figurines, pottery, copper articles, and gold rings, many of which reflect various cultural influences from outside Bahrain. There is also a small but flourishing avant-garde art community.
Music is an important part of Bahraini life. There is a rich folk music culture, and fidjeri, songs once sung by pearl divers, are still heard. Since 1991 the country has held an annual music festival. Although the country does not have a film industry, moviegoing is a popular activity, and some of Bahrain’s cinema theatres screen English-language films. In the early 21st century the government undertook a program to encourage the development of theatre.
- Cultural institutions
Bahrain has several museums, including the Bahrain National Museum and Beit al-Qurʾān, which houses a large collection of Qurʾāns, some dating to the 7th century. There are also museums devoted to the history of petroleum production and to pearl diving as well as several art galleries. The Bahraini Ministry of Education maintains a network of public libraries, the oldest of which, in Manama, opened in 1946. The emirate also maintains one of the principal wildlife conservation areas in the Persian Gulf region, Al-Areen Park, which harbours such indigenous mammals as the oryx and gazelle and is visited by many waterfowl species.
- Sports and recreation
Football (soccer) is the most popular modern sport, while horse racing remains a national pastime. More than 20 types of Arabian horses are bred on the islands, and races are held weekly on Bahrain island’s large racecourse, which seats some 10,000 spectators. Traditional sports such as falconry and gazelle and hare hunting are still practiced by wealthier Bahrainis, and camel racing is a popular public entertainment. The country first competed in the Summer Olympic Games in 1984; it has not participated in the Winter Games.
- Media and publishing
Several weekly and daily papers are published in Arabic, and a small number appear in English. Most of the press is privately owned and is not subject to censorship as long as it refrains from criticizing the ruling family. The state television and radio stations broadcast most programs in Arabic, although there are channels in English.
History of Bahrain
This discussion focuses on Bahrain since the 19th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see Arabia, history of.
Bahrain has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and several thousand burial mounds in the northern part of the main island probably date from the Sumerian period of the 3rd millennium bce. It was the seat of ancient Dilmun (Telmun), a prosperous trading centre linking Sumer with the Indus valley about 2000 bce. The archipelago was mentioned by Persian, Greek, and Roman geographers and historians. It has been Arab and Muslim since the Muslim conquest of the 7th century ce, though it was ruled by the Portuguese from 1521 to 1602 and by the Persians from 1602 to 1783. Since 1783 it has been ruled by sheikhs of the Khalīfah family (Āl Khalīfah), which originated in the Al-Ḥasā province of Arabia.
- The British protectorate
Several times during the 19th century, the British intervened to suppress war and piracy and to prevent the establishment of Egyptian, Persian, German, or Russian spheres of influence. The first Bahraini-British treaty was signed in 1820, although the country’s British-protected status dates from 1861, with the completion of a treaty by which the sheikh agreed to refrain from “the prosecution of war, piracy, or slavery.” Thus, Britain assumed responsibility for the defense of Bahrain and for the conduct of its relations with other major powers. In 1947 this protection briefly became the responsibility of the government of British India, which had both commercial and strategic interests in the Persian Gulf, but it reverted to Britain following India’s independence. Until 1970 the government of Iran periodically advanced claims to sovereignty over Bahrain, but these were repudiated.
Britain’s decision to withdraw all of its forces from the gulf in 1968 led Sheikh ʿIsā ibn Sulmān Āl Khalīfah to proclaim Bahrain’s independence in August 1971. A treaty of friendship was signed with the United Kingdom, terminating Bahrain’s status as a British protectorate, and Sheikh ʿĪsā was designated the emir. Bahrain then became a member of the United Nations and the Arab League.
- Domestic and foreign relations since independence
After independence, tensions mounted between the predominantly Shīʿite population and Sunni leadership—especially following the 1979 revolution in Iran. The political unrest was fueled by economic and social grievances related to the fall in oil prices and production, cutbacks in public spending, and continued discrimination against the majority Shīʿite population.
In 1981 Bahrain joined with five other Arab gulf states in forming the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which has led to freer trading and closer economic and defense ties. During the Persian Gulf War (1990–91), Bahrain made its port and airfields available to the coalition forces that drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Although more moderate than Saudi Arabia, Bahrain has generally followed that country’s lead in most foreign policy decisions. The construction of the causeway linking Bahrain with Saudi Arabia has strengthened bilateral relations and regional defense and has helped both countries economically and politically. Bahrain has maintained relatively good relations with the United States and has continued to house the U.S. Navy’s Fifth Fleet. Iran’s ties to the country’s Shīʿite community, its territorial claims to the island, and its displeasure with the American presence in Bahrain have helped to strain relations between it and Bahrain. Resolution in 2001 of the dispute between Bahrain and Qatar over the Ḥawār Islands improved their already warming relations.
Sheikh Ḥamad ibn ʿIsā Āl Khalīfah, who assumed power on the death of his father in March 1999, released a number of imprisoned Shīʿite dissidents and other individuals later that year in a bid to ease tensions. These changes led in 2001 to a referendum—overwhelmingly supported by Bahrainis—that ratified the National Action Charter. The charter was followed in 2002 with the promulgation of a new constitution that established a constitutional monarchy in Bahrain, called for equality between Sunnis and Shīʿites, and guaranteed civil and property rights to all citizens.
The country’s first municipal and parliamentary elections in decades were held in May and October 2002, respectively. The municipal election marked the first time that female candidates were able to run for public office. In the parliamentary election in October, no women were elected to the lower house of the bicameral parliament, although some did receive appointment to the upper house. In the 2006 elections, Bahrain elected a woman to parliament for the first time.
Rates of unemployment were among the highest in the gulf region and a special concern among the country’s youth. In 2009 sponsorship of expatriate workers was reduced, an initiative meant to address unemployment among native Bahrainis. In 2008 King Ḥamad had initiated a new economic diversification plan meant to reduce reliance on petroleum and boost Bahrainis’ disposable income. With its business and leisure tourism industry, aluminum-processing facilities, shipbuilding and ship-repair industry, and the promotion of Bahrain as a centre of Islamic banking, the country at the end of the first decade of the 21st century appeared well placed to thrive in a post-petroleum era.
However, in spite of the political and economic changes of the past decade, there was discontent with the rate of progress in those areas. In February 2011, after mass demonstrations earlier in the year had forced Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali from power in Tunisia and Pres. Ḥosnī Mubārak from power in Egypt, thousands of Bahraini protesters gathered in Manama to call for political and economic reforms, including a new constitution, the creation of a more representative parliament, and the release of political prisoners. Most of the protesters belonged to Bahrain’s large Shīʿite community, which often complained of discrimination by Bahrain’s Sunni royal family and Sunni-dominated government. Two protesters were killed by police in the first two days of protests, stoking the crowd’s anger. Following the protesters’ deaths, King Ḥamad gave a televised address expressing regret over the deaths of the protesters and promising to continue the current trend of reform that had begun with the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 2002. When demonstrations continued, the Bahraini police staged a violent crackdown, attacking the protesters’ encampment in central Manama with tear gas and rubber ammunition. Several protesters were killed and hundreds were injured.
Protests flared again in March, with clashes between protesters and riot police causing disruptions in Manama. On March 14 a Gulf Cooperation Council security force of about 1,500 soldiers from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates entered the country via the King Fahd Causeway linking Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. The Bahraini government announced that it had invited the force to preserve public order. However, members of the opposition objected, condemning the move as equivalent to a foreign invasion. On March 15 King Ḥamad declared a state of emergency as clashes continued.
Following the declaration, Bahraini security forces once again cracked down, using rubber bullets, tear gas, and live ammunition to clear protesters from their main encampment in Pearl Square and from other areas in downtown Manama. There were reports that Bahraini security forces took over hospitals in Manama, attacking medical workers and preventing injured protesters from receiving treatment. Several protest movement leaders were arrested in overnight raids. On March 18, after clearing demonstrators out of Pearl Square, the government demolished a tall monument at the centre of the square that had become a symbol of the protest movement. The government’s aggressive response proved effective in deterring further mass protests, but smaller clashes between security forces and demonstrators continued around the island.
In the aftermath of the unrest, the Bahraini government launched a sweeping campaign to reassert the security forces’ authority and intimidate those thought to be responsible for the protests. Security forces raided the homes of opposition supporters and human rights activists, often placing them in secret detention. Some of the detainees were given quick trials in military courts. Additionally, thousands of workers suspected of having participated in the protests were dismissed from their jobs. The Bahraini security campaign also targeted Bahraini medical workers, detaining a number of physicians, nurses, and paramedics who were thought to have treated injured protesters. On May 8 King Ḥamad gave an order to lift the state of emergency, in place since March 15, on June 1. GCC forces reportedly began to leave the country soon afterward.
Once the Bahraini government was confident that the threat of renewed mass protests had passed, it began to make conciliatory gestures. The first of these was a national reconciliation conference convened by King Ḥamad in July 2011. Opposition leaders had expressed doubts that meaningful reforms could be achieved through government-sponsored dialogue; these doubts were affirmed when the government packed the conference with supporters, relegating the opposition delegation to a token presence, and omitted the opposition’s main demands from the agenda.
King Ḥamad also announced that he would commission an independent investigation into the government’s response to protests, to be carried out by a team of international legal experts. The report, published in November 2011, concluded that the Bahraini government had used excessive force to quell protests and that some detainees had been tortured while in the custody of the security forces. In addition, the report rebutted claims by supporters of the Bahraini government that the government of Iran had played a role in fomenting the unrest.
The king accepted these conclusions, and a commission was formed to implement the report’s recommendations. The government did carry out some of the recommended actions, such as reinstating many of the workers fired for political reasons and making plans to rebuild a number of Shīʿite religious buildings that had been demolished during the uprising. It also introduced some new measures to increase oversight and accountability for the security forces. However, all the senior officials responsible for the crackdown remained in their posts, and the government continued many of the abusive practices detailed in the report, including the imprisonment of opposition activists.
In May 2012 King Ḥamad made a series of amendments to the constitution meant to increase the parliament’s role in governance. The opposition rejected the amendments as inconsequential and repeated its demands for a fully elected parliament chosen through fair elections. Antigovernment anger continued to simmer; regular skirmishes between police and protesters led the government to impose a new ban on public demonstrations in October.
Bahrain - Language, Culture, Customs and Business Etiquette
Facts and Statistics
- Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
- Capital: Manama
- Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers Population: 677,886 which includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)
- Ethnic Make-up: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
- Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
- Government: constitutional hereditary monarchy
Language in Bahrain
Arabic is the official language of Bahrain, but English is widely spoken. It is used in business and is a compulsory second language in schools. Among the non-Bahraini population, many people speak Farsi, the official language of Iran, or Urdu, the official language of Pakistan. Arabic is spoken by almost 200 million people in more than 22 countries. It is the language of the Qur'an, the Holy Book of Islam, and of Arab poetry and literature. While spoken Arabic varies from country to country, classical Arabic has remained unchanged for centuries. The Arabic language originated in Saudi Arabia in pre-Islamic times and spread across the Middle East during the 7th and 8th centuries. The official language of Bahrain is Modern Standard Arabic, a modernized form of classical Arabic. It is used in schools, for official purposes and for written communication within the Arabic-speaking international community. In Bahrain, there are differences between the dialects spoken in urban areas and those spoken in rural areas.
Although state radio and television are broadcast primarily in Arabic, newspapers and magazines in other languages are available. Al-Ayam is a leading Arabic newspaper. The Bahrain Tribune and the Gulf Daily News are English newspapers.
- Why not learn some useful Arabic phrases phrases?
Bahraini Culture and Society
Islam is practised by the majority of Bahrainis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. Islam emanated from what is today Saudi Arabia. The Prophet Muhammad is seen as the last of God's emissaries (following in the footsteps of Jesus, Moses, Abraham, etc) to bring revelation to mankind. He was distinguished with bringing a message for the whole of mankind, rather than just to a certain peoples. As Moses brought the Torah and Jesus the Bible, Muhammad brought the last book, the Quran. The Quran and the actions of the Prophet (the Sunnah) are used as the basis for all guidance in the religion.
Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. The exact time is listed in the local newspaper each day. Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed. The weekend is Friday and Saturday.
During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing. Expatriates are not required to fast; however, they must not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum in public. Each night at sunset, families and friends gather together to celebrate the breaking of the fast (iftar). The festivities often continue well into the night. In general, things happen more slowly during Ramadan. Many businesses operate on a reduced schedule. Shops may be open and closed at unusual times.
o The extended family or tribe forms the basis of both the social structure and individual identity. o Loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business. o Nepotism is viewed positively, since it guarantees hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. o The family is very private. Prying questions should be avoided. o It is ordinary for large extended families to live in the same house, compound, or village.
Women in Bahrain
o Women are more publicly active in Bahrain than in most Arab countries. o Many Bahraini women are not completely veiled; however, some still wear a head-covering in public. o Bahraini women are highly educated and are well represented in all of the major professions, as well as various women's societies and organizations. o About one-quarter of Bahraini women hold jobs outside the home. o Women have the right to vote.
Etiquette and Customs in Bahrain
o Bahrainis are tremendously friendly o Greetings are given with a sense of enthusiasm and delight at meeting you or seeing you again. o Smiling and direct eye contacts are crucial. o Men shake hands and kiss each other on the cheek. o Women generally hug and kiss close friends. o When Bahrainis greet each other they take their time and converse about general things.
Gift Giving Etiquette
o Extended family and very close friends may exchange gifts for birthdays, Ramadan, Eid, Hajj, and other celebratory occasions. o If you are invited to a Bahraini's home, bring a houseplant, box of imported chocolates, or a small gift from your home country. o Always say that the gift is for your host, never the hostess, who you may not meet. o Flowers do not make good gifts from a man, although a woman could give them to her hostess. o Do not give alcohol. o Gifts are given with two hands. o Gifts are not opened when received.
o Bahrainis enjoy entertaining friends and family in their homes, although they will also socialize in restaurants, clubs, and international hotels. o Entertainment is often same-sex only. o Friends may be invited to a Bahraini's home. If you are invited to a Bahraini's house: o Check to see if the host is wearing shoes. If not, remove yours at the door. o Dress conservatively. o Do not discuss business at a social occasion. o Try to arrive at the invited time. Punctuality is appreciated. o Show respect for the elders by greeting them first. o Accept any offer of coffee or tea. To turn down hospitality may be considered a rejection of the person. o If you are invited for a meal, there may be a great deal of socializing and small talk before the meal is served. The evening will end quite quickly after the meal. o It is considered good manners to reciprocate any hospitality you receive.
Watch your table manners!
o If the meal is on the floor, sit cross-legged or kneel on one knee. Never let your feet touch the food mat. o Eat only with the right hand. o Try a bit if everything that is served. o Meals are generally served family-style. o Honoured guests are often offered the most prized pieces such as a sheep's head. o There is often more food than you can eat. You will be urged to take more food despite saying you are full. o It is considered polite to leave some food on your plate when you have finished eating. This demonstrates that your host has showered his guests with generosity and abundance.
Business Etiquette and Protocol in Bahrain
Relationships and Communication
o Bahrainis do not require as much personal space as most western cultures. o Since Bahrainis prefer to do business with those with whom they have a personal relationship, a letter of introduction from someone they know allows them to trust you. o They will spend a great deal of time on the getting-to-know-you part of relationship building. o You must be patient. Impatience is considered bad manners and may deleteriously affect future business dealings. o The Bahrain business community is relatively small and your behaviour will quickly become public knowledge. o Relationships take time to grow and must be nurtured. This may require several visits. o Bahrainis tend to be indirect communicators who tell people what they think they want to hear if to do otherwise would make the other person uncomfortable. o It is a good idea, therefore, to privately confirm agreements given in public so you may determine if the person was merely trying to save face. o Communication is also quite formal and follows a hierarchical structure. o Always demonstrate deference to the most senior person in the group o Bahrainis are non- confrontational o If displeased with your behaviour, Bahraini business people may prefer to have an intermediary discuss the situation with you rather than confront you themselves. o Bahrainis often touch others while conversing to enhance communication. o Under no circumstances should you slap a Bahraini on the back or point at them with your finger. o Avoid looking at your watch when speaking with Bahraini businesspeople, as it is a sign of disrespect.
Business Meeting Etiquette
o Appointments are necessary o Morning meetings are generally preferred. Do not try to schedule meetings in July and August as many Bahrainis leave the country during the worst of the summer heat. o Arrive at meetings promptly. o Meetings are generally not private until a relationship has developed or there is a need to discuss matters confidentially. o In general, Bahrainis have an open-door policy, even when they are in a meeting. This means you may expect frequent interruptions. Others may wander into the room and start a different discussion. o Meetings are often interrupted. You will have to repeatedly refocus people back to the topic. o Business meetings start after prolonged inquiries about health, family, etc.
Business Negotiation Etiquette
o Good personal relationships are important since trust is required in order to conduct business. o Bahrainis are event rather than time-driven. The actual meeting is more important than the timeliness or outcome. o Companies are hierarchical. The highest-ranking person reaches decisions. o Decisions are reached slowly. If you try to rush things, you will give offense and risk your business relationship. o Do not use high-pressure sales tactics. o There is a tendency to avoid giving bad news and to give flowery acceptances, which may only mean "perhaps". . If you change the lead negotiator, negotiations will start over. o Proposals and contracts should be kept simple.
What to Wear?
o Business attire is conservative. o Men should wear lightweight, good quality, conservative suits, at least to the initial meeting. o Dressing well gives a good impression. o Women should avoid giving offense by wearing extremely conservative clothing.
o Titles are important. Use the honorific Mister and any academic or political title and the first name. 'Sheikh' is a good title to use for old men, or 'Hajji' for those who have undertaken the religious obligation. o Do not use only the first name until expressly invited to drop the titles.
o Business cards are given to everyone you meet. o Have one side of your card translated into Arabic. o Present your card so the Arabic side is readable to the recipient. o Present and receive business cards with two hands. o Make a point of studying any business card you receive before putting it into a business card holder.
Manama -National capital, Bahrain
Manama, Arabic Al-Manāmah, capital and largest city of the state and emirate of Bahrain. It lies at the northeast tip of Bahrain island, in the Persian Gulf. About one-fifth of the emirate’s population lives in the city. First mentioned in Islamic chronicles about ad 1345, it was taken by the Portuguese (1521) and by the Persians (1602). It has been held, with brief interruptions, by the ruling Āl Khalīfah dynasty since 1783. Because Bahrain concluded a series of treaties (1861–1914) placing the country under increasing British protection, there was a British political agent stationed at Manama from 1900, subject to the political resident for the Persian Gulf, whose headquarters were long at Bushire, Iran. In 1946 the residency was moved to Manama, where it remained until the city became the capital of independent Bahrain in 1971.
Long an important commercial centre of the northern Persian Gulf, the traditional economy was based on pearling, fishing, boatbuilding, and import trade. Harbour facilities were poor; ocean vessels had to anchor in the open roadstead 2–4 miles (3–6 km) offshore. The discovery of petroleum on Bahrain (1932) revolutionized the city’s economy and appearance, with the construction of many modern buildings. Manama developed as a trade, financial, and commercial centre; it is the seat of numerous banks. The headquarters of the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), however, are at ʿAwālī, in the centre of Bahrain island. Manama was declared a free port in 1958, and the new deepwater port facilities of Mīnāʾ Salmān, in the protected bay of al-Qulayʿah Inlet, southeast of the built-up area of the city, were opened in 1962. With storage and refrigeration facilities, and equipment for docking and repair of large oceangoing vessels, it is now one of the most important ports of the Persian Gulf. The island and town of Al-Muḥarraq, Bahrain’s second largest community, lies just northeast; the two cities are linked by a causeway 1.5 miles (2.5 km) long. Pop. (2001) 143,035.
Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain
The Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United States hosted guests in celebration of the 11th Formula One race at the Sakhir Circuit in Bahrain.
The event welcomed friends and family of the Embassy, as well the city's motorsport fans, to a day of festivities. The race was screened live all around the Embassy, with food and entertainment in hopes of recreating the bustling atmosphere felt on the circuit. The gripping night race led to Mercedes AMG's Lewis Hamilton first place pole position, but he was not the only winner of the night. The Embassy organized a raffle which prized one lucky guest with a trip to Disneyland with a stay at the Four Seasons Resort in Florida.
"This was a great deal of fun and we are very glad to have been invited by the Embassy to share the sport we all love," Grand Prix Canada Operations Director, Bruno Savard.
The Embassy extends its gratitude to the organizers of the Bahrain Grans Prix for a another successful race, and hopes to continue to welcoming the fans of DC in future races.
Bahrain Area: 750 sq km (290 sq mi) Population (2009 est.): 1,168,000 Capital: Manama Chief of state: King Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah Head of government: Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman al ...>>>Read On<<<
Bahrain Area: 728 sq km (281 sq mi) Population (2007 est.): 749,000 Capital: Manama Chief of state: King Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah Head of government: Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman al-Khalifah ...>>>Read On<<<
Bahrain Area: 720 sq km (278 sq mi) Population (2005 est.): 715,000 Capital: Manama Chief of state: King Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah Head of government: Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman al-Khalifah ...read on
Bahrain Area: 718 sq km (277 sq mi) Population (2004 est.): 709,000 Capital: Manama Chief of state: King Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah Head of government: Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman al-Khalifah.--->>>>>read on
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