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Official Name: Republic of Zambia
Form of government multiparty republic with one legislative house (National Assembly)
Head of state and government President: Edgar Lungu
Capital Lusaka
Official language English
Official religion none2
Monetary unit Zambian kwacha (K)3
Population (2014 est.) 14,532,000
Total area (sq mi) 290,585
Total area (sq km) 752,612
Urban-rural population

Urban: (2011) 39.2%
Rural: (2011) 60.8%

Life expectancy at birth

Male: (2012) 49.6 years
Female: (2012) 52.8 years

Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate

Male: (2010) 80.7%
Female: (2010) 61.7%

GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2013) 1,480

  1. Statutory number (including 8 nonelective seats).
  2. Zambia is a Christian nation per the preamble of a constitutional amendment.
  3. The Zambian kwacha was redenominated on Jan. 1, 2013.
Cities and towns of Zambia

BahatiBangweuluBwachaBwana MkubwaBweengwaChadizaChama SouthChasefuChavumaChawamaChembeChiengiChifubuChifunabuliChikankataChilangaChililabombweChilubiChimbamilongaChingolaChinsaliChipangaliChipata CentralChipiliChitamboChomaChongweDundumwenziFeiraGwembeIsoka EastIsoka WestItezhi-TezhiKabompo EastKabompo WestKabushiKabwataKabwe CentralKafueKafulafutaKalabo CentralKalomo CentralKalulushiKamfinsaKanchibiyaKankoyoKantanshiKanyamaKaoma CentralKapiri MposhiKapocheKaputaKasamaKasempaKasenengwaKatombolaKatubaKawambwaKeembeKitweKwachaLiuwaLivingstoneLuampaLuangeniLuanshyaLuapulaLubansenshiLuenaLufwanyamaLukashyaLukulu EastLukulu WestLumeziLundaziLunteLupososhiLusaka CentralMagoyeMalamboMaloleMambilimaMandevuMangangoMansa CentralMapatizyaMasaitiMateroMazabuka CentralMbabalaMbalaMfuweMilanziMkaikaMkushi NorthMkushi SouthMongu CentralMonzaMoombaMpika CentralMpongweMporokosoMpulunguMsanzalaMuchingaMufuliraMufumbweMulobeziMumbwaMunaliMwandiMwansabombweMwembeshiMwenseMwinilunga EastMwinilunga WestNakondeNalikwandaNaloloNamwalaNangomaNchangaNchelengeNdola CentralNkanaNyimbaPambashePembaPetauke CentralRoanRufunsaSenangaSenga HillSerenjeSeshekeShiwa Ng'anduSiavongaSikongoSinazongweSindaSinjembelaSolwezi CentralSolwezi EastSolwezi WestVubwiWusakileZambezi EastZambezi West

Zambia Photo Gallery
Zambia Realty
Jobs in Zambia

Coat of arms of Zambia.svg
Zambia map locator.gif
Location of Zambia within the continent of Africa
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Map of Zambia
Zambia Flag of (WFB 2004).gif
Flag Description of Zambia: green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems

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Aloe Vera Astragalus Bankoro Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh Cat's Claw Chamomile Chasteberry Coconut Cranberry Dandelion Echinacea Ephedra European Elder Tree Evening Primrose Fenugreek Feverfew Flaxseed Garlic Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng (Asian) Golden Seal Grape Seed Green Tea Hawthorn Hoodia Horse Chestnut Kava Lavender Licorice Malunggay Moringa Oleifera Milk Thistle Mistletoe Passion Flower Peppermint Oil Red Clover Ringworm Bush (Akapulko) – Cassia alata Saw Palmetto St. John's Wort Tawa Tawa Turmeric Valerian Yohimbe
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About Zambia

Zambia, landlocked country in Africa. It is situated on a high plateau in south-central Africa and takes its name from the Zambezi River, which drains all but a small northern part of the country.

Large parts of the country are thinly populated. Much of population is concentrated in the country’s most developed area—known as the Line of Rail—which is served by the railway linking the Copperbelt with Lusaka, the capital, and with the border town of Livingstone.

Geography of Zambia

  • Area: 752,612 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Texas.
  • Cities: Capital--Lusaka (pop. approx. 1.7 million).
  • Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.
  • Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.
  • Climate: Generally dry and temperate.

Land of Zambia

Location and Geography. Zambia has a long land border on the west with Angola but is divided from its neighbours to the south by the Zambezi River. To the southwest is the thin projection of Namibian territory known as the Caprivi Strip, at the eastern end of which Zambia and three of its neighbours (Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe) appear to meet at a point—a “quadripoint”—although the precise nature of the meeting is contested. Man-made Lake Kariba now forms part of the river border with Zimbabwe. Zambia’s other neighbours include Mozambique to the southeast, Malawi to the east, and Tanzania to the northeast. The long border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo starts at Lake Tanganyika, crosses to Lake Mweru, and follows the Luapula River to the Pedicle, a wedge of Congolese territory that cuts deep into Zambia to give the country its distinctive butterfly shape. Westward from the Pedicle the frontier follows the Zambezi-Congo watershed to the Angolan border...>>>read more<<<

In size, the country is roughly equivalent to the state of Texas, about 290,585 square miles (752,615 square kilometers). The unique butterfly-shaped boundaries are the result of the European scramble for Africa's natural resources in the early 1900s. The capital is Lusaka. Bordering neighbors are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola.

It is a landlocked country with several large freshwater lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, Lake Bangweulu, and the largest man-made lake in Africa, Lake Kariba. The terrain consists of high plateaus, large savannas, and hilly areas; the highest altitude is in the Muchinga Mountains, at 6,000 feet (1,828 meters). The Great Rift Valley cuts through the southwest and Victoria Falls, the most visited site in Zambia, is in the South.

There are several game parks in the country; some consider Southern Luangwa to be the best game park on the continent.

Location of Zambia

  • Zambia is in Africa.
  • Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Area:
    • total: 752,618 sq km
    • land: 743,398 sq km
    • water: 9,220 sq km
  • border countries: Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km

Demography of Zambia

  • Nationality: Noun and adjective--Zambian(s).
  • Population (mid-2009 est.): Approx. 12.9 million.
  • Annual growth rate (2009): 2.9%.
  • Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.
  • Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs, Muslim, Hindu.
  • Languages: English (official), about 70 local languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi, Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.
  • Education: No compulsory education; seven years free education. Literacy--women: 60.6%; men: 81.6%.
  • Health: Infant mortality rate--70/1,000. Life expectancy--38.63 years. HIV prevalence (15-49)--14.3%.
  • Work force: Agriculture--75%; mining and manufacturing--6%; services--19%.

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. Most Zambians are subsistence farmers. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the official national religion. Expatriates, a majority of whom are British (about 15,000) and South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are employed in mines and related activities. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Approximately 14.3% of Zambians are infected by HIV. Over 800,000 Zambian children have lost one or both of their parents due to HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy at birth is 38.63 years.

The population in 2000 was estimated at 9.87 million. There exists a strong migration to urban areas where families go looking for employment. With 43 percent of the population living in cities, Zambia has the highest ratio of urban population in Africa. Those living in the rural areas face a life of mainly low-yielding subsistence farming, which contributes to the high migration.

    • The population is comprised primarily (97 percent) of seven main tribes and a collection of seventy-five minor tribes. There is also a small percentage of citizens from other African nations. The remaining population is of Asian, Indian, and European descent. Because of conflicts in the border countries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola, there has been a large influx of refugees in recent years.

People of Zambia

  • Ethnic and linguistic composition

Most Zambians speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo language family and are descended from farming and metal-using peoples who settled in the region over the past 2,000 years. Cultural traditions in the northeast and northwest indicate influences and migrations from the upper Congo basin. There are also some descendants of hunters and gatherers who seem to have been pushed back into the Kalahari, the Bangweulu and Lukanga swamps, and the Kafue Flats. In the 19th century invaders arrived from the south: the Ngoni settled in the east, while the Kololo briefly ruled the Lozi in the upper Zambezi valley. Europeans began to enter in significant numbers in the late 19th century...>>>read more<<<

Etiquette in Zambia

Greetings are very important. One greets another by saying "hello" and "how are you?" Then come inquiries into one's family, the crops or the weather. It is rude to come directly to the point; conversations may go on for several minutes before the point of the conversation is broached.

There is hand etiquette as well. The right hand is for eating—which is traditionally done without utensils—greetings, and exchanges of money. It is impolite to use your left hand when interacting with another person. Washing of one's hands before eating is very common, with a bowl of water passed around as one sits at the table. The guests are given the honor of going first.

Proverbs are an important part of Zambian society. They are part of the oral tradition and have become catchphrases in which a lesson is taught. For example a Kaunde proverb is "Bubela bubwel," which translates to "lies return." This is a proverb used to warn against gossip and telling lies because it can make you look foolish later.

Another important aspect of Zambian culture is respect for elders. When greeting an elder, one shows respect by dropping to one knee, bowing the head, clapping three times, and saying one of the many terms that signify respect.

Economy of Zambia

  • GDP (2008, purchasing power parity): $17.39 billion.
  • Annual growth rate (2009, projected): 4.3%.
  • Per capita GDP (2008, current prices): $1,500.
  • Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydroelectric power, fertile land.
  • Agriculture: Products--corn, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and soybeans.
  • Industry: Types--mining, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, and textiles.
  • Trade (2008 est.): Exports--$5.08 billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut vegetables, cotton, tobacco. Major markets--Switzerland, China, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Malawi. Imports--$5.06 billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals. Major suppliers--South Africa, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, United Kingdom.
  • Major donors: Donor contributions totaled $989 million in 2008, as reported by Ministry of Finance and National Planning. The World Bank is Zambia's largest multilateral donor. Other key multilateral donors include the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union, UN agencies, and the African Development Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and assistance through multilateral agencies, the United States is Zambia's largest country donor, amounting to approximately $330 million in 2008.

About two-thirds of Zambians live in poverty. Per capita annual incomes are well below their levels at independence and, at $1,500, place the country among the world's poorest nations. Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 39 years) and maternal mortality (101 per 1,000 live births). The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS-related issues (i.e., rising medical costs, decline in worker productivity) place on government resources. Zambia is also one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized countries. Over one-third of the country's 12.9 million people are concentrated in a few urban zones strung along the major transportation corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated. Unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.

HIV/AIDS is the nation's greatest challenge, with 14.3% prevalence among the adult population. HIV/AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian economic, political, cultural, and social development for the foreseeable future.

Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper prices declined on world markets. The socialist government made up for falling revenue by increasing borrowing. After democratic multi-party elections, the Chiluba government (1991-2001) came to power in November 1991 committed to an economic reform program. The government was successful in some areas, such as privatization of most of the parastatals, maintenance of positive real interest rates, the elimination of exchange controls, and endorsement of free market principles. Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba government. Zambia has yet to address effectively issues such as reducing the size of the public sector and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.

For 30 years, copper production declined steadily from a 1973 high of 700,000 metric tons to a 2000 low of 226,192 metric tons. The decline was the result of poor management of state-owned mines and lack of investment. With the privatization of the mines in April 2000, the downward trend in production and exports was reversed as a result of investments in plant rehabilitation, expansion, increased exploration, and high copper prices on the international market. Copper production rose to 535,000 metric tons in 2007, but slumping copper prices in late 2008 put significant pressure on the mining companies and government revenue. Zambia experienced positive economic growth for the eleventh consecutive year in 2009, with a real growth rate of 4.3% (as projected by the government). The rate of inflation dropped from 30% in 2000 to single-digit inflation of 8.9% by December 2007 due to fiscal and monetary discipline and the growth of the domestic food supply. Year-on-year inflation rose above 14% in 2009, due to rising fuel and food prices.

In April 2005, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank's International Development Association (IDA) provided Zambia significant debt service relief and debt forgiveness under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Zambia was the 17th country to reach the HIPC completion point and has benefited from approximately U.S. $6 billion in debt relief. In July 2005, the G-8 agreed on a proposal to cancel 100% of outstanding debt of eligible HIPC countries to the IMF, African Development Fund, and IDA. Zambia is among the beneficiaries of this additional multilateral debt relief. Zambia also completed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) arrangement with the IMF for the period 2008-2011. The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydropower. The government is also seeking to create an environment that encourages entrepreneurship and private-sector led growth.

Zambia's economy has weathered the effects of the global economic crisis and a subsequent fall in world copper prices. High inflation, currency volatility, rising unemployment, and restricted access to capital dampened Zambia’s economic performance in early 2009; however, copper prices have nearly returned to more stable, profit-yielding levels.

Jobs in Zambia, Africa

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History of Zambia

David Livingstone (19 March 1813–1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in Africa.

The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago. The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began in the 15th century, with the greatest influx between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the 19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By the latter part of that century, the various peoples of Zambia were largely established in the areas they currently occupy.

Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer, the area lay untouched by Europeans for centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries, and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the falls is named after him.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British commercial and political interests in Central Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed formally and granted self-government in 1923, and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was transferred to the British colonial office in 1924 as a protectorate.

In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was the center of much of the turmoil and crisis that characterized the federation in its last years. At the core of the controversy were insistent African demands for greater participation in government and European fears of losing political control.

A two-stage election held in October and December 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislative council and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. The council passed resolutions calling for Northern Rhodesia's secession from the federation and demanding full internal self-government under a new constitution and a new national assembly based on a broader, more democratic franchise. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.

At independence, despite its considerable mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges. Domestically, there were few trained and educated Zambians capable of running the government, and the economy was largely dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of its neighbors--Southern Rhodesia and the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola--remained under white-dominated rule. Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally declared independence in 1965. In addition, Zambia shared a border with South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule, particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the next decade, it actively supported movements such as the Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO).

Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on railroad lines south to South Africa and west through an increasingly troubled Angola.

By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe achieved independence in accordance with the 1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's problems were not solved. Civil war in the former Portuguese colonies generated refugees and caused continuing transportation problems. The Benguela Railroad, which extended west through Angola, was essentially closed to traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's strong support for the ANC, which had its external headquarters in Lusaka, created security problems as South Africa raided ANC targets in Zambia.

In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's principal export, suffered a severe decline worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and international lenders for relief, but as copper prices remained depressed, it became increasingly difficult to service its growing debt.

In response to growing popular demand, and after lengthy, difficult negotiations between the Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia enacted a new constitution in 1991 and shortly thereafter became a multi-party democracy. Kaunda's successor, Frederick Chiluba, made efforts to liberalize the economy and privatize industry, but allegations of massive corruption characterized the latter part of his administration. By the mid-1990s, despite limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign debt remained among the highest in the world.

Although poverty continues to be a significant problem in Zambia, its economy has stabilized, attaining single-digit inflation in 2006-2007, real GDP growth, decreasing interest rates, and increasing levels of trade. Much of its growth is due to foreign investment in Zambia's mining sector and higher copper prices on the world market. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, consisting of approximately U.S. $6 billion in debt relief.

Principal Government Officials of Zambia

Current Principal Government Officials
  • President--Levy Mwanawasa
  • Vice President--Lupando Mwape
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs--Lt. Gen. Ronnie Shikapwasha
  • Ambassador to the United States--Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika
  • Ambassador to the United Nations--Mwelwa Musambachime

From 2011 to 2014
  • Pres. Michael Chilufya SATA
  • Vice Pres. Guy SCOTT
  • Min. of Agriculture & Livestock Wylbur SIMUUSA
  • Min. of Chiefs & Traditional Affairs Nkandu LUO
  • Min. of Commerce, Trade, & Industry Robert SICHINGA
  • Min. of Community Development & Mother & Child Health Emerine KABANSHI
  • Min. of Defense Edgar LUNGU
  • Min. of Education, Science, & Vocational Training John T. PHIRI
  • Min. of Finance Alexander CHIKWANDA
  • Min. of Foreign Affairs Harry KALABA
  • Min. of Health Joseph KASONDE, Dr.
  • Min. of Home Affairs Ngosa SIMBYAKULA
  • Min. of Information & Broadcasting & Govt. Spokesperson Joseph KATEMA, Dr.
  • Min. of Justice Edgar LUMBU
  • Min. of Labor & Social Security Fackson SHAMENDA
  • Min. of Lands, Natural Resources, & Environmental Protection Mwansa KAPEYA
  • Min. of Local Govt., Housing, Early Education, & Environment Emmanuel CHENDA
  • Min. of *Mines, Energy, & Water Development Yamfwa MUKANAGA
  • Min. of Tourism & Arts Jean KAPATA
  • Min. of Transport, Communications, Works, & Supply Christopher YALUMA
  • Min. of Youth & Sports Chishimba KAMBWILI
  • Attorney Gen. Mumba MALILA
  • Governor, Bank of Zambia Michael GONDWE
  • Ambassador to the US Palan MULONDA
  • Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Patricia Mwaba KASESE-BOTA

Through 2010

  • President--Rupiah Banda
  • Vice President and Minister of Justice--George Kunda
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs--Kabinga Pande
  • Minister of Defense--Kalombo Mwansa
  • Minister of Finance--Situmbeko Musokotwane
  • Minister of Health--Kapembwa Simbao
  • Ambassador to the United States--Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika
  • Ambassador to the United Nations--Lazarous Kapambwe

Zambia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-265-9717/8/9).

Government and Political Contidions of Zambia

  • Type: Republic.
  • Independence: October 24, 1964.
  • Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).
  • Branches: Executive--president (chief of state and head of government), cabinet. Legislative--unicameral National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local courts.
  • Ruling political party: Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD).
  • Suffrage: Universal adult.
  • Subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into 72 districts.

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. The constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973, abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The new constitution and the national elections that followed in December 1973 were the final steps in achieving what was called a "one-party participatory democracy."

The 1973 constitution provided for a strong president and a unicameral National Assembly. National policy was formulated by the Central Committee of the United National Independence Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia. The cabinet executed the central committee's policy.

In accordance with the intention to formalize UNIP supremacy in the new system, the constitution stipulated that the sole candidate in elections for the office of president was the person selected to be the president of UNIP by the party's general conference. The second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy was UNIP's secretary general.

In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous year that included riots in the capital and a coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power. Zambia enacted a new constitution in August 1991, which enlarged the National Assembly from 136 members to a maximum of 158 members, established an electoral commission, and allowed for more than one presidential candidate who no longer had to be a member of UNIP. The constitution was amended again in 1996 to set new limits on the presidency (including a retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement that both parents of a candidate be Zambian-born). The National Assembly is comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to eight presidentially-appointed members, and a speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each administered by an appointed deputy minister who essentially performs the duties of a governor.

The Supreme Court is the highest court and the court of appeal; below it are the high court, magistrate's court, and local courts.

The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964 to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign for independence and successfully bridged the rivalries among the country's various regions and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base government on his philosophy of "humanism," which condemned human exploitation and stressed cooperation among people, but not at the expense of the individual.

Kaunda's political party--the United National Independence Party (UNIP)--was founded in 1959 and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from 1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three significant political parties, but only UNIP had a nationwide following.

In December 1972, Zambian law established a one-party state, and all other political parties were banned; this was later enshrined in the 1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate, was elected President in the 1973 elections. Elections also were held for the National Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to run, but these seats were sharply contested. President Kaunda's mandate was renewed in December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in a "yes" or "no" vote on his candidacy.

Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an increasingly impressive group of important Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and labor leaders. Zambia's first multi-party elections for parliament and the presidency were held on October 31, 1991. MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly carried the presidential election over Kenneth Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD landslide, in the parliamentary elections, the MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats, and UNIP won the remaining 25.

By the end of Chiluba's first term as President (1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform had faded in the face of re-election aspirations. A number of prominent supporters founded opposing parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May 1996 pushed through constitutional amendments that eliminated former President Kaunda and other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996 presidential elections. In the presidential and parliamentary elections held in November 1996, Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to protest the exclusion of its leader from the presidential race, alleging in addition that the outcome of the election had been predetermined due to a faulty voter registration exercise. As President Chiluba began his second term in 1997, the opposition and civil society challenged the results of the election amid international efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition to resolve their differences through dialogue.

Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office. Civil society, opposition parties, and many members of the ruling party exerted sufficient pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away from any attempt at a third term.

Presidential, parliamentary, and local government elections were held on December 27, 2001. Eleven parties contested the elections. The elections encountered numerous administrative problems. Opposition parties alleged that serious irregularities occurred. Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow margin, and he was sworn into office on January 2, 2002. Opposition parties won a majority of parliamentary seats in the December 2001 election, but subsequent by-elections gave the ruling MMD a majority in parliament.

During his first months in office, President Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate. In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided details on a number of corruption allegations targeting former President Chiluba, and called for parliament to consider lifting Chiluba's immunity from prosecution.

On May 4, 2007, a British court found former president Chiluba and several others liable in a civil suit for misappropriating as much as $58 million of public resources, but the case has not yet been registered in Zambian courts and enforced. The government's Task Force on Corruption (originally established by former president Mwanwasa) has successfully prosecuted several cases of abuse of office and high-level corruption. In August 2009, and after 8 years, a Zambian magistrate acquitted Chiluba of corruption and the Government of Zambia decline to appeal the acquittal.

In February 2006 the government agreed to allow the formation of a Constituent Assembly to consider and adopt the draft constitution, subject to certain conditions. In August 2007, the Zambian parliament passed a government-sponsored law creating a National Constitutional Conference (NCC) charged with drafting a new constitution. The NCC, which is comprised of over 500 members drawn from parliament, political parties, civil society, and government, began meeting in late December 2007 and has had its mandate extended into 2010. Some members of civil society have refused to participate in the NCC, saying that its membership is too heavily stacked in the government's favor and pushing instead for the promised Constituent Assembly.

The Government of Zambia introduced very limited legislative changes to electoral procedures in mid-2006, including an electoral code of conduct and limits on politically-motivated donations and handouts. However, in parliamentary by-elections held in 2009, candidates from all parties violated the code of conduct, and the Electoral Commission of Zambia had insufficient capacity to enforce it.

President Mwanawasa died August 19, 2008 in a Paris hospital from complications of a stroke suffered June 29. In accordance with the constitution, Vice President Rupiah Banda assumed presidential powers but was required to hold elections within 90 days of Mwanawasa's death. Elections were held on October 30, 2008. Banda was declared the winner after narrowly defeating Michael Sata of the opposition Patriotic Front party by only 30,000 votes. International observers were satisfied overall with the conduct of the election and the management of the Electoral Commission of Zambia, although no voters had been registered since late 2005. Banda was sworn in on November 2, 2008 and announced new cabinet members on November 14. Banda has vowed to continue the business-friendly and corruption-fighting policies of his predecessor, but emerging corruption scandals in the Zambian Government and the acquittal of former President Chiluba have raised speculation about President Banda’s initial commitments to promote fiscal transparency and accountability and about his overall commitment to fighting corruption. Presidential and parliamentary elections are currently slated for 2011.

Culture of Zambia

Zambia's present-day culture exhibits a blend of historical and cultural features from the past as well as the present.

Music of Zambia: traditional instruments include the hand piano, a small instrument with iron keys mounted on a rectangular box and plucked by both thumbs. Also the silimba, a xylophone-type instrument with a range of flat wooden keys mounted over gourds. The most common instrument of course is the drum and drumming plays an important part in rituals, ceremonies, and celebrations. Basketry: Zambian crafts include some of the finest basketry in Africa. Basketry, practiced by both the men and the women is widespread. The many forms and raw materials include bamboo, liana vines, roots, reeds, grasses, rushes, papyrus palm leaves, bark, and sisal. They are decorated with symbolic designs using traditional dyes made from different colored soils, roots, bark, and leaves. Textiles: Tribal Textiles, based in the Luangwa Valley, produce unique individually designed and hand-painted textiles made from 100 percent Zambian cotton. They produce cushion covers, bed covers, table linen, wall hangings, and an extensive range of personal accessories and bags. Zambian Languages: Chibemba, Nkoya, Chichewa or Chinyanja, Chilunda or Lunda, ChiTonga or Tonga, Ila, Mambwe, Namwanga, Kaonde, Lozi, Luvale, Shona Shona, Tumbuka, Yauma, Aushi, Lenje, Lamba, Lala, Fanagalo (a pidgin language used mainly used in the South African mines) and others (78 in total). Traditional ceremonies: There are more than 20 annual traditional ceremonies in Zambia, manifesting customs, social life, rituals, oral history, material and spiritual culture. Many of Zambia's rural inhabitants have retained their traditional customs and values. After independence in 1964 the government recognized the role culture was to play in the overall development of a new nation and began to explore the question of a national identity.

As a result, institutions to protect and promote Zambia’s culture were created, including the National Heritage Conservation Commission. Private museums were also founded and cultural villages were established to promote the expression of artistic talents.

Culture clash

One area of Zambia suffered a cultural blow when the Kariba Dam, a double curvature concrete arch dam, was constructed between 1955 and 1959 at a cost of $135 million. Kariba Lake, the vast reservoir created by the dam, extends 175 miles (280 kilometers) and has a maximum width of 20 miles (32 kilometers).

The creation of the reservoir forced resettlement of about 57,000 Tonga people living along the Zambezi in both Zambia and Zimbabwe. The people resettled for the project were forced to leave their homes and fertile lands that had been under cultivation for hundreds of years. They were resettled to poor lands with no development assistance.

Foreign Relations of Zambia

Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), which is headquartered in Lusaka.

President Kaunda was a persistent and visible advocate of change in southern Africa, supporting liberation movements in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these liberation organizations were based in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s.

President Chiluba assumed a visible international role in the mid- and late 1990s. His government sponsored Angola peace talks that led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone. Zambia was the first African state to cooperate with the International Tribunal investigation of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to establish a cease-fire in Democratic Republic of the Congo. After the signing of a cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and August 1999, Zambia was active in supporting the Congolese peace effort, although activity diminished considerably after the Joint Military Commission tasked with implementing the ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September 2001.

During President Mwanawasa's administration, Zambia contributed troops to support UN peacekeeping operations in southern Sudan. During his tenure as SADC Chair, President Mwanawasa brought the issue of Zimbabwe to the fore in the SADC, taking a lead role in pressuring President Mugabe for reforms in his country. Zambia's history of stability and its commitment to regional peace has made it a haven for large numbers of refugees. Currently, Zambia hosts approximately 73,000 refugees (down from a high of 203,000 in 2002), including roughly 37,000 Congolese, 26,000 Angolans, and 9,000 other nationalities (mainly Rwandans, Burundians, and Somalis). In recent years, Zambia has made serious efforts to repatriate many of these refugees, including approximately 27,000 Congolese refugees in the past three years.

Zambia UN-Habitat


  • Total value of UN-Habitat investments (2008-2013): US$ 100,000
  • Total number of UN-Habitat projects (2008-2013): 1 project
  • Main donors: Booyoung
  • Implementing partners: WFP, UNICEF, ILO, UNCTAD

General information

Capital: Lusaka Major cities: Lusaka, Kitwe, Ndola, Kabwe, Chingola, Mufulira, Luanshya, Livingstone, Kasama, Chipata.

  • Population: 14.08 Million
  • GDP: US$ 20.68 Billion
  • GDP growth: 7.3%%
  • Urban population (annual %): 4.0%
  • Population growth rate (average annual %): 3.2%
  • Urban population growth rate (average annual %): 4.3%
  • Rural population growth rate (average annual %): 2.5%

Source: World Bank 2012

UN-Habitat projects in Zambia

Strengthening Urban Planning Capacity in Lusaka, Zambia The aim of this proposal is to assist the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) and the Lusaka City Council (LCC) in building adequate institutional capacity at both central and local levels regarding urban planning, especially concerning city extensions. This includes the support to the development of a robust urban policy and regulatory framework for Zambia and the Lusaka city in particular.

  • Duration: January 2013 – December 2013
  • Value: US$ 100,000
  • Donor: Booyoung
  • Implementing partners: WFP, UNICEF, ILO, UNCTAD
  • Location: Lusaka

Cities and Towns in the Provinces of Zambia

Landmarks in Zambia

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Victoria Falls:

It is more than twice as high as Niagara Falls and about a mile across, and the absolute mass of this gusher is mind-boggling. The force of the water falling into the pool below is so great, in fact, that on clear days you can see the spray from as far as 30 miles away.

The local populace is equally impressive: Baboons, elephants and hippos are often spotted along the shores of Victoria. Safari Par Excellence can set you up with everything, whether you're looking for a simple rafting trip on the Zambezi River leading up to Victoria or a helicopter ride to view the white rhinos in nearby Mosi-oa Tunya National Park.

Located between the borders of Zimbabwe and Zambia, it is the largest cross-border falls in the world, and the closest major city is in Livingstone, Zambia, about eight miles from Victoria Falls. Most visitors fly into Livingstone International Airport and then take a shuttle to their hotel, where tour operators pick up guests and transport them to the falls. Best time to go and see the water spectacle: The perfect window is from February to May, when the rainy season has just ended but the falls are still gushing.

Zambia in 2005

Zambia Area: 752,612 sq km (290,585 sq mi) Population (2005 est.): 11,262,000 Capital: Lusaka Head of state and government: President Levy Mwanawasa Pres. Levy Mwanawasa began 2005 with a frank ...<<<read on>>>

Real Estate or Properties for Sale or lease in Zambia

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Zambia Photo Gallery

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Zambia News

  • October 12, 2014: Sakwiba Satirises Zambian Political Comedy: Nse Udoh | Lusaka lawyer Sakwiba Sikota has made light work of the Zambian political scene by satirically laying out the complexities of the goings on in Zambia. Sikota has laid out the unpredictability of the on-going power game in the ruling party and took a dig at The Post Newspapers’ turn around in its editorials where they are vilifying individuals they ‘canonized’ as saints not too long ago. Source of Story


This is not the official site of this country. Most of the information in this site were taken from the U.S. Department of State, The Central Intelligence Agency, The United Nations, [1],[2], [3], [4], [5],[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14],[15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24],[25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],[31], [32], [33], [34], and the [35].

Other sources of information will be mentioned as they are posted.