Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
List of the 17 Regions in the Philippines
National - Capital Region ● I - Ilocos ● II - Cagayan ● III - C. Luzon ● IV-A - Calabarzon ● IV-B - Mimaropa ● V - Bicol ● VI - W. Visayas ● VII - C. Visayas ● VIII - E. Visayas ● IX - Zamboanga ● X - N. Mindanao ● XI - Davao ● XII - Soccsksargen ● XIII - Caraga ● XIV - CAR ● XV - BARMM
Within these 17 regions in the Philippines, there are 42,046 barangays, 1488 municipalities, 146 cities, 81 provinces. It has a democratic form of government and the freedom of speech is upheld by law. English is the "lingua franca" and is the mode of instruction in all high schools, colleges and universities. Laws and contracts are written in English.
- Minimize corruption and maximize prosperity with a Guarantee of One Senator per Region. They divided the Philippines into REGIONS, but kept SENATORIAL representation national with no accountability to any regions.. No wonder many regions remain poor. Petition for a regional senatorial election. All regions will have senatorial representation.
Andarayan North • Andarayan South • Bangag • Bantay • Basi East • Basi West • Bauan East • Bauan West • Cadaanan • Calamagui • Calillauan • Carilucud • Cattaran • Centro Northeast (Pob.) • Centro Northwest (Pob.) • Centro Southeast (Pob.) • Centro Southwest (Pob.) • Dassun • Furagui • Gadu • Gen. Eulogio Balao • Iraga • Lanna • Lannig • Lingu • Maddarulug (Santo Domingo) • Maguirig • Malalam-Malacabibi • Nabbotuan • Nangalisan • Natappian East • Natappian West • Padul • Palao • Parug-parug • Pataya • Sampaguita • Ubong
The Philippines has been a "decentralized" form of government since 1991, contrary to what most Filipinos think. Ever since the creation of Republic Act 7160, each LGU is responsible for its own domain. Even the smallest LGU the barangay creates its own Budget. It is not dependent on handouts from the city, municipality or province. "IMPERIAL MANILA IS A MYTH!", it does not exist anymore. The Philippine budget formulation system is not centralized. . It is the responsibility of each LGU to submit their budgetary needs for review. Failure to submit is the problem.
|Adopt this webpage. Help your community get more exposure to TOURISTS and INVESTORS. Help us improve this webpage.|
List of Municipalities in the Cagayan province within Region II in the Republic of The Philippines
Abulug | Alcala | Allacapan | Amulung | Aparri | Baggao | Ballesteros | Buguey | Calayan | Camalaniugan | Claveria | Enrile | Gattaran | Gonzaga | Iguig | Lal-Lo | Lasam | Pamplona | Peñablanca | Piat | Rizal | Sanchez-Mira | Santa Ana | Santa Praxedes | Santa Teresita | Santo Niño | Solana | Tuao
Cities in the province of Cagayan: Tuguegarao City (Capital)
Solana, Cagayan Province Map Locator
|Interactive Google Satellite Map of Cagayan Province|
Cagayan Province within The Philippines
Solana Municipal Hall Picture
Please Upload Picture
- Solana has a total of 38 barangays.
- Registered Voters of Solana as of (2010) = 33,178
- Solana is in the "3rd" Voting Congressional District of Cagayan.
- Population of Solana (as of Aug 1, 2007) = 71,475
- Land Area of Solana (as of 2007, in hectares) = 23,460
- Solana is a 1st class Municipality and Partially Urban.
- Solana is in the Cagayan province and within Region II-Cagayan Valley in the island of Luzon.
Geography of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
Geography of Solana
Location of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
Solana is located ....
History of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
The beginning of Solana
People of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- Population of SOLANA , CAGAYAN as of 2020 census: 88,445
- Total Population of Solana as of 2015 census: 82,502
Local Government Unit LGU of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
The Sangguniang Panlungsod is composed of the City (Municipality) Vice-Mayor as Presiding Officer, regular Sanggunian members (Councilors), the President of the Association of Barangay Captains and the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan.
They shall exercise and perform the legislative powers and duties as provided for under Republic Act No. 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991. Shall consider and conduct thorough study all matters brought to their attention and consequently pass resolutions, enact ordinances and to introduce recommendations.
Budget of Municipalities and Cities: The Philippine budget formulation system is not centralized. It has been decentralized since 1991. It is the responsibility of each LGU to submit their budgetary needs for review. Failure to submit is the problem. "IMPERIAL MANILA IS A MYTH!".
- Absolutely NO need for FEDERALISM. It is a ploy to give the Bangsamoro an Islamic State and finance the religion of Islam. It violates the constitution's "separation of church and state". We need a representation of a MINIMUM of one SENATOR per REGION..
- Contrary to Pres. Duterte's ranting (July 2019): Elected public officials can't be suspended by the DILG or the office of the president unless an official complaint has been filed. Republic Act 7160 chapter 4.
- Elected officials of Solana for the term of 2019-2022
- Mayor of Solana: CARAG, JENNALYN (NUP) 29,317 (Uncontested)
- Vice-Mayor of Solana: CARAG, MEYNARD (NUP) 29,845
- Councilors of Solana:
- DE ASIS, FRANCISCA (PDPLBN) 17,947
- LASAM, CARLO (IND) 14,337
- CARAG, AMELIA (NUP) 13,871
- MALLILLIN, JAMES (NUP) 13,761
- CRISTOBAL, RONALD (NUP) 12,783
- EDILLO, EDILBERTO (PDPLBN) 12,604
- FERNANDEZ, LINA (NUP) 12,312
- LAGUNDI, JUN (IND) 11,996
- Elected officials of Solana for the term of 2016-2019
- Mayor of Solana: Jennalyn Carag
- Vice-Mayor of Solana: Meynard Carag
- Councilors of Solana:
- Rodolfo Fernandez Jr.
- James Mallillin
- Richard Lito Bacud
- Francisca De Asis
- Maximo Callueng
- Cleofe Simangan
- Amelia Carag
- All Ubiña
- Elected officials of Solana for the term of 2013-2016
- Mayor of Solana: CARAG, MEYNARD (UNA) UNITED NATIONALIST ALLIANCE
- Vice-Mayor of Solana: CAUILAN, ROBERTO (LP) LIBERAL PARTY
- Councilors of Solana:
- DE ASIS, RODRIGO (NPC) NATIONALIST PEOPLES' COALITION 10270 9.83%
- LASAM, CARLO PAOLO (LP) LIBERAL PARTY 9378 8.97%
- FERNANDEZ, RUDY (UNA) UNITED NATIONALIST ALLIANCE 9029 8.64%
- BUSILAN, JANE (NPC) NATIONALIST PEOPLES' COALITION 7869 7.53%
- FERRER, VICENTE JR. (UNA) UNITED NATIONALIST ALLIANCE 7200 6.89%
- PASCUA, MARIO (LP) LIBERAL PARTY 6788 6.50%
- CARAG, AMELIA (NPC) NATIONALIST PEOPLES' COALITION 6620 6.33%
- SIMANGAN, CLEOFE (UNA) UNITED NATIONALIST ALLIANCE 6618 6.33%
- Elected officials of Solana for the term of 2010-2013
- Mayor of Solana: Meynard Zinampan Carag
- Vice-Mayor of Solana: Roberto Afan Cauilan
- Councilors of Solana:
This is the.
- Every Government Unit in the Philippines is within a Barangay. The municipal hall, city hall, the provincial capitol building, and even the Malacañang Palace where the president resides is within a Barangay.
The barangay has power and authority over its domain. The improvement of the barangay rests on the barangay officials. The barangay chairman, the barangay council and the local businessmen forge the prosperity of the barangay. Not the president of the Philippines, senate, nor congress. Not the governor of the province, not the mayor nor council of the municipality or city. Poor barangays stay poor because of weak and/or ignorant(uninformed) barangay leaders.
When roads or any infrastructure need to be built, improved or repaired, all the barangay officials have to do is make a resolution and present it to the city or municipality council. The resolution will force the city/municipal council or responsible government office to hear the legitimate demands. "The squeaky wheel gets the grease."
- Each city or municipality is represented by the "barangay association or federation". The elected president of the Association of Barangay Council and the President of Kabataan (SK) association each have a seat in the City/Municipality council. Their powers are the same and equal to the elected city/municipality councilors. They are there to help lobby the demands of the barangays. They are not there just to collect a big salary and rub elbows with the regular elected city/municipality council, but to also represent the needs of the barangays.
- The duties of the barangay officials are specifically written in Chapter III(Punong Barangay) and Chapter IV (The Sangguniang Barangay). Read it..
Practically anything that has to do with the barangay, the barangay officials have a say on it and most likely the authority over it. The majority of the barangay officials are not aware of their duties and power. They depend on the city council or mayor. The elected barangay officials are afraid of the mayor and city/municipality's "Sangguniang Panlungsod". They are in fear of being ousted or removed from office. The truth is, the "Sangguniang Panlungsod" does not have the power to remove or suspend any elected barangay officials from office. Only the COURT OF LAW can do this (judicial branch of the government). Elected public officials can't be suspended by the DILG or the office of the president unless an official complaint has been filed, there must be proof and there must be due process. Republic Act 7160 chapter 4, Section 60. Information is power. Be informed. Do not be intimidated by the president, senator, congressman, governor, mayor, vice-mayor, or councilors. Do your job.
The control of traffic is not up to the city council or chief of police. It is controlled by the barangay. If the barangay needs traffic enforcers, the barangay can make a resolution to demand it from the city or municipality council. When the electric coop or the water district do not maintain their lines, the barangay can directly demand for the maintenance from the utility companies. No need to wait for city council.
The citizens also has the power to make demands to the barangay officials. In case the officials get blinded. Simply file an official complaint with the barangay secretary naming the Punong barangay as the respondent representing the barangay.
- If the power lines are sagging, don't go to the power company, go to the barangay office. Ask the barangay for a DEMAND resolution against the power company.
- If the water lines are busted, don't wait for the water company, go to the barangay office. Ask the barangay for a DEMAND resolution against the water company.
- If the potholes in the road are not fixed, don't wait for the The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), go to the barangay office. Ask the barangay for a DEMAND resolution against the DPWH.
- Are you beginning to get the point?
Cleaning the shorelines, drainage systems, streets, rivers, and parks within your barangay is YOUR responsibility. You are accountable for this. It is not the responsibility of the City/Municipality officials. The citizens and officials of the barangay are responsible. Stop blaming others.
- BUDGET: As far as the preparation for the budget expenditures, it starts at the barangay level, then moves on to cities, municipalities, provinces and regions. The barangays need to exercise their authority. They need to put their yearly budget together for their administration and future projects. The majority of the barangays leave this job to the municipality and city. This is so wrong. Then when the budget doesn't come or is lacking, they complain.
- The budget for the barangays does go to the City or Municipality, but simply for holding and later distribution. The city or municipality DOES NOT approve the budget. It was already approved by congress. The city or municipality simply "distributes" the approved budget.
- The bureau of internal revenue is in cahoots to subdue the barangays, municipalities and provinces. They call the rightful shares to the taxes collected as "Internal Revenue Allotment Dependency". It is not a dependency. It is the lawful and rightful share of the LGU as specified in "TITLE III, SHARES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS IN THE PROCEEDS OF NATIONAL TAXES, CHAPTER I, Allotment of Internal Revenue Taxes, Section 284."
- "IMPERIAL MANILA IS A MYTH!", it does not exist anymore. The Philippine budget formulation system is not centralized. . It is the responsibility of each LGU to submit their budgetary needs for review. Failure to submit is the problem.
- DURING ELECTIONS: Where do City and Municipality politicians go to campaign? They seek the support of the Barangay officials. They plead to the barangay folks for the votes. Even the candidate for president. But after the election they ignore you. Do not ever forget the power of the barangay.
Ignorance keeps the pinoys thinking that Manila rules. Be informed, be educated and make your barangay prosper.
- Absolutely NO need for FEDERALISM. It is a ploy to give the Bangsamoro an Islamic State where the religion of . Bangsamoro will be a HOMELAND not for all Filipinos but for only the Muslim Filipinos. It violates the constitution's "separation of church and state". Religion is always good for the people but it should never be embraced or financed by government. Tax exemption is not tantamount to financing. Every non-profit organization is tax-exempt.
Businesses in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- How to Improve Your Business and Livelihood
The Philippine Livelihood Program: The Philippine government provides several programs to enhance the livelihood of the Filipino people. The department of Science and Technology through its Technology Research Center (TRC) regurlarly conducts various types of hands-on and personalized training programs.
- DOST - Website
- UPLiFT stands for Urban Program for Livelihood Finance and Training. - Website
- DSWD Pro-poor and Livelihood Programs - Website
Take a picture of your Business (from a Sari-Sari Store to a Mega Mall). Upload that picture here in zamboanga.com and that picture can immediately be your business webpage. It is that easy. Here are two examples of how a picture becomes the webpage of the business: FHM Garden Grill and Catering and ABC Shopping Center
- Give your business a good description. Add your address and contact number if available.
- Possible Businesses
- Auto, Trucks, Motorcycle and Bicycle dealers
- Banks, Lending Firms, Pawnshops, and Financial Institutions
- Clinics, Veterinary Clinics and Hospitals
- Pharmacies, Drug Stores, Agri-Vets
- Convenient Stores, Hardware and Supplies, General Stores, Sari-Sari Stores, Internet-Cafes
- Department Stores and Appliance Stores
- Supermarket, wet market, Fish Markets
- Hotels, Motels, Pension Houses, Boarding houses and Resorts
- Repair Shops: Shoe repair, Cellphone, Bikes (bicycles), motorcycles etc...
- Restaurants, Carenderias, Coffee Shops, and Bakeries (Bakeshops)
- Salons, Spas, Beauty Shops and Barber Shops
- Gas Stations, Water Stations, Propane Stations
Real Estate for Sale in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- If you have real estate property, whether its commercial, residential, farm land, or just an empty lot in Solana, you can list that property for FREE HERE in Z-wiki.
- You can list your House and lot or farm land for sale for free here in Z-Wiki
Churches, Mosques, or Places of Worship in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
The name of your church, mosque, or place of worship can be listed in this community page. Take a picture of the facade of your church or place of worship and it can be posted here. We can even provide you with a free webpage. You can enter the data (story about your place of worship) here yourself, email the information or pictures to (firstname.lastname@example.org) or via.
- FILIPINOS WAKE UP! THE TAXES YOU PAID ARE USED BY THE GOVERNMENT TO EXCLUSIVELY FINANCE THE RELIGION OF ISLAM.
Freedom of religion, yes. Equality, yes. But no favoritism.
Schools in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- Take a picture of your school building(s) and send your pictures via email to (email@example.com) or message me via . I will then post the pictures in this page.
Due to Covid19: Pursuant to the instructions of President Roa Duterte, and as recommended by the DepEd, classes for the year 2021-2022 will be opened but will be monitored.
- List of schools: >>> click
PUBLIC NOTICE: Why pretend that the National language of the Philippines is Tagalog? It should be English. To be a Teacher, doctor, lawyer, engineer, architect, nurse, computer technician; what books do you learn from? English books of course. All your tests are in English. The constitution of the Philippines is written in English. All the laws and new laws introduced by congress are in English. For that matter, you can't be a teacher in a school system unless you know English. The "Licensure Exam for Teachers" is in ENGLISH! Who are these people forcing Tagalog down our throats? Tagalog is simply one of the many dialects of the Philippines. Keep your dialects but learn and be fluent and proficient in ENGLISH.
The name of your school in Solana can be listed here. You can list it like this:
- Name of School. Private or Public. It can be an elementary school, high school, college.
- Address of your school
- Telephone Number
- Principal of the school
You can also create a webpage for your school. We can help you.
Economy of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- If you have an article that talks about the improvement of the economy of Solana you can post that article here. If you come across any news items that talk about the economy of Solana, you may post it here. Of course you have to reference the writer of the article. Any improvement to transportation, power and service usually improves the economy of the community, so go ahead and report that too.
Natural Resources of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- Protect the environment
It is sad but true that as of the year 2012 the rivers of the Philippines continue to be the #1 Sewer Systems of the Philippines.
Protect & Save the Rivers. Do not let your sewer drain into the river. Your community can be the first to initiate this project.
Build your riverbank protection with a built-in gutter system. Reforest within Ten Years - Guaranteed!
Let us plant more trees in every barangay in the entire Philippines. It does not make any difference if the barangay is urban, partially urban or rural; we need more trees. Trees will prevent erosion, provide oxygen, prevent green house effect, and even a place of business for the shade tree mechanic.
The Philippines is a tropical country and practically anything will grow. The DENR has the planting trees project that goes on every year. Lots of picture taking for the media. Planting trees one by one is the "human" way of doing it. This individual planting of trees is good if done to "line" the roads and highways with trees or along fences or property divisions, or if you have a plantation.
To reforest the nation of the Philippines we have to plant trees the "mother nature" way. Sow the seeds during the rainy season. Go deep into "bald" forests and plant trees by sowing seeds. If there's not enough volunteers to do this, use the military helicopters to fly over the designated areas and sow the seeds.
Guaranteed within a few years, The Philippines will be lush again. >>Read More
We are using our rivers as our sewer system. If you ask a Filipino, "Are the Filipinos a clean people?" The answer is an automatic, "Yes!". However, the Filipinos are suffering from the same disease or attitude as most people do, and that is the "NIMBY" disease or "NIMBY" attitude. (NIMBY) Not In My Back Yard. So it is OK to dump my garbage and sewer there. Not mine! Someone else will take care of it.
This attitude is killing our rivers. Your great-grandparents, grandparents or parents were once proud to tell the stories of how they enjoyed swimming in the river behind your house or nearby. However, you can't say the same or tell the same stories to your kids or grand kids. Why? Because your generation is killing the river.
- Secretary Roy Cimatu - since May 8, 2017
- Department of Environment and Natural Resources
- Visayas Avenue, Diliman, 1100 Quezon City, Philippines
We have so much water in the Philippines and yet very little to drink.
Instead of relying too much on Diesel fuel and Coal to generate the majority of Philippine's Electrical energy Supply, we can concentrate more on renewable and sustainable source of energy such as: Hydro Power, Solar Power, and Wind Power and thermal energy conversion. We have too many black outs.
Tourists Attractions of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
- Help us add some of the tourist attractions of Solana in Z-wiki. This will help boost the local economy of Solana. Anything that is unique or anything that stands out in your community may be a tourist attraction.
- Landmarks are usually photographed a lot by visitors. Post the Solana landmarks here.
Festivals, Fiestas and Traditions of Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
In the Philippines a fiesta is usually celebrated in barrios or barangays. It is the official holiday of the LGU, the barangay. Filipinos love fiestas. It is a time for joy and celebration. A fiesta is of Spanish origin and is usually commemorated in association with a christian patron saint. Most barangays whose population have been clustered by Muslims(Moros) and their population is more than that of the Christians, the celebration of the fiesta have been cancelled and replaced with the Hari Raya or Eid al-Fitr.
The cities or municipalities usually have yearly festivals where all the barangays participate. The cities or municipalities hold contests for the best floats in parades.
Your Story about Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
Create you own personal page about the barangay in the municipality or City you live in. Title it like so for specificity: "Mybarangay, MyCityMunicipality, Myprovince, Philippines by MyFirstname Mylastname". You can update and edit this page anytime and anyway you want. It does not have to follow the standard format of the main wiki. It is your page. A link to your page will be inserted in this main barangay page. Here is an example page.
If you want the tittle to be more generic then do this: "Philippines by Your name". You can insert your picture of anywhere in the Philippines in this page. This will be your personal WIKI social media page.
You can talk about your personal experiences, your advocacies, the environmental conditions of your barangay, municipality, city or province.
The oldest man or woman in Solana, Cagayan, Philippines
Do you know who the oldest man or woman is in your community of Solana? Zamboanga.com is starting this inquiry in order to honor the older generation of the Philippines. Please provide the full name and date of birth of the elder living in Solana. We will then post your entry in the Oldest Man or Woman in the Philippines page.
Featured News of The Philippines
Updated: November 1, 2022
Over 65K people in Central Visayas affected by Paeng.
DUMAGUETE CITY – The Department of Social Welfare and Development in Region 7 (DSWD-7) has reported that Tropical Storm Paeng affected 65,461 people or 3,561 families in 220 barangays in the four Central Visayas provinces. A report from the DSWD-7 obtained by the Philippine News Agency on Tuesday showed that as of Oct. 31, more than PHP759,000 in assistance was also handed out by the agency through their local counterparts in the aftermath of the storm. The assistance includes food packs, hot meals, modular tents, and hygiene kits, among others.
Paeng damage to W. Visayas agri sector now at P363-M
BACOLOD CITY – The onslaught of Severe Tropical Storm Paeng left an estimated damage of PHP362.934 million to crops in Western Visayas as of Tuesday. A progress report of the Department of Agriculture Region 6 (DA-6) cited by the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council Emergency Operations Center showed the affected crops include rice, corn, and other high value-crops with a total volume of 14,002 metric tons (MT), of which more than 10,000 MT is for rice alone.
Solana, Cagayan supports Philippine Cycling
Philippine Cycling is about cycling in the Philippnes. Philippine Cycling helps promote bike races, cycling clubs, bicycle tours, and the development of bicycle trails. Activities are coordinated with bike shops and cycling clubs throughout the Philippines to promote the fun of riding bikes. Philippine Cycling will be coordinating events with tour of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Road biking and mountain bikings will be promoted by Philippine Cycling.
Cycling Activity to Participate In
Your cycling activity can be posted here and it will be shown in all the Provincial, City, Municipal and Barangay pages. Your 2015 Cycling Race or Activity can be Posted here.
- ILOILO CITY, April 27-May 2, 2015 (PNA) – Some 5,000 bikers are expected to join the second Iloilo Bike Festival slated April 27-May 2, 2015 as the city continues to aspire to become a bike-able walkable metropolis. The activity that supported by the John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University (JBLFMU) and Megaworld Iloilo aims to promote Iloilo as a safe and bike friendly city, promote the share-a-road movement encourage Ilonggos to commute via biking and raise Ilonggos awareness on the benefits of biking on health, safety and environment concerns. Read More....
- CYCLING Le Tour de Filipinas 2015 set as country celebrates 60 years of top-caliber cycling Feb 1 to Feb 4 2015 - View the result of the race: A four stage race. Stage 1 starts in Balanga and back to Balanga for a 126K race Feb 1, 2015 (Sunday); stage 2 starts in Balanga, Bataan to Iba, Zambales for a 154.7 K race Feb 2, 2015 (Monday); stage 3 starts in Iba, Zambales to Lingayen, Pangasinan for a 150.1K race Feb 3, 2015 (Tuesday); stage 4 starts in Lingayen, Pangasinan to Baguio City, Benguet for a 101.7K race Feb 4, 2015 (Wednesday). For a total distance of 532.5 Kms. Read More >>>
- Ronda Pilipinas: Feb 8 - 27 2015:>> Discovering young riders for the national team will be the main objective of the LBC Ronda Pilipinas 2015 when the country’s premiere cycling race hits the road on Feb. 8 in Butuan City. Ronda Pilipinas executive project director Moe Chulani said the international multistage bikathon, which ends on Feb. 27, will have two qualifying legs of four stages each in Mindanao and the Visayas where the top riders will advance to face a tough foreign challenge in the six-stage Luzon finale. Read More>>>
- Do the following so your photo upload will be properly categorized for Solana.
- Copy and paste the code below in "GREEN" to the body or "Summary" of the image file that you are uploading.
[[Category:Solana, Cagayan, Photo and Image Gallery]]
[[Category:Cagayan Province Photo Gallery]]
*[[Solana, Cagayan, Philippines]]
Most of the contents in this site are from registered user collaborations. Information has also been taken from the Department of Tourism, Comelec, National Statistical Coordination Board, DILG: Department of the Interior and Local Government, (LGU) government sites, online news, and other content sites about the specific community. This page does not serve as the official website of the community but rather compliments and helps the community to promote tourism and attract investors.
This is an interactive and collaborative webpage, meant to help promote this community and showcase it to the world via the internet.
This wiki page follows a format. The editor of this wiki page reserves the right to change formats, edit, or delete entries that may be considered as offensive, vulgar or not for the betterment of this wiki page.