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San Marino

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Major Cities of San Marino in the continent of Europe

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THE SAN MARINO COAT OF ARMS
Coat of arms of San Marino.svg
San Marino - Location Map (2013) - SMR - UNOCHA.svg
Location of San Marino within the continent of Europe
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Map of San Marino
Flag of San Marino.svg
Flag Description of San Marino: The San Marino flag was officially adopted on April 6, 1862. Blue is symbolic of the sky above, while white represents the snow covering Mt. Titano, San Marino's highest point.

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Official name Repubblica di San Marino (Republic of San Marino)1
Form of government unitary multiparty republic with one legislative house (Great and General Council [60])
Heads of state and government Captains-Regent: Valeria Ciavatta and Luca Beccari
Capital San Marino
Official language Italian
Official religion none
Monetary unit euro (€)2
Population (2013 est.) 32,600COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 23.63
Total area (sq km) 61.2
Urban-rural population

Urban: (2011) 93.8%
Rural: (2011) 6.2%

Life expectancy at birth

Male: (2012) 81.5 years
Female: (2012) 86.1 years

Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate

Male: (2001) 98.9%
Female: (2001) 98.4%

GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2011) 56,364

1Alternate long-form name is Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (Most Serene Republic of San Marino).

2San Marino uses the euro as its official currency even though it is not a member of the EU.

Background of Marino

Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

San Marino, small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano, on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions and surrounded on all sides by the Republic of Italy. It is the smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican City and Monaco and, until the independence of Nauru (1968), the smallest republic in the world.


Geography of San Marino

San Marino has an irregular rectangular form with a maximum length of 8 miles (13 km), northeast to southwest. It is crossed by the Marano and Ausa (Aussa) streams, which flow into the Adriatic Sea, and by the stream of San Marino, which falls into the Marecchia River. The landscape is dominated by the huge, central limestone mass of Mount Titano (2,424 feet [739 metres]); hills spread out from it on the southwest, whereas the northeastern part gently slopes down toward the Romagna plain and the Adriatic coast. The silhouette of Mount Titano, with its three summits crowned by ancient triple fortifications, may be seen from many miles away. In 2008 Mount Titano and the historic centre of San Marino were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.

The climate is mild and temperate, with maximum temperatures of 79 °F (26 °C) in summer and 19 °F (−7 °C) in winter. Annual rainfall ranges between about 22 inches (560 mm) and 32 inches (800 mm). Vegetation is typical of the Mediterranean zone, with variations due to elevation, and includes olive, pine, oak, ash, poplar, fir, and elm, as well as many kinds of grasses and flowers. Besides domestic and farmyard animals, moles, hedgehogs, foxes, badgers, martens, weasels, and hares are found. Indigenous birds and birds of passage are plentiful.

Although traces of human presence from both prehistoric and Roman times exist in the territory, Mount Titano and its slopes are known to have been populated, with certainty, only after the arrival of St. Marinus and his followers. San Marino citizens, or Sammarinesi, make up more than four-fifths of the country’s population, with Italians composing most of the remainder. Thousands of Sammarinesi reside abroad, principally in Italy, the United States, France, and Argentina. Nearly nine-tenths of San Marino’s citizens are Roman Catholics, though there is no official religion. The official language is Italian. A widely spoken dialect has been defined as Celto-Gallic, akin to the Piedmont and Lombardy dialects as well as to that of Romagna.

Because centuries-long quarrying has exhausted Mount Titano’s stone and ended the craft that depended upon it, the territory is now without mineral resources. All electrical power is transferred via electrical grid from Italy, San Marino’s main trading partner. The country’s principal resources are industry, tourism, commerce, agriculture, and crafts. Manufactures include electronics, paint, cosmetics, ceramics, jewelry, and clothing. Ceramic and wrought-iron articles, as well as modern and reproduction furniture, are among San Marino’s traditional craft products. Fine printing, particularly of postage stamps, is a consistent source of revenues. Banking is a vital industry. In 2002 San Marino replaced the Italian lira with the euro as its national currency.

Tourism is the sector of greatest expansion, and it makes a major contribution to the inhabitants’ income. Alongside traditional excursion tourism, there is convention-type tourism, based on modern hotel facilities, as well as residential tourism.

Agriculture, although no longer the principal economic resource in San Marino, remains vital. Wheat, grapes, and barley are the chief crops; dairying and livestock also are important. About three-fourths of the land is given to permanent cultivation.

The capital, San Marino city, is set high on the western side of Mount Titano, beneath the fortress crowning one of its summits, and is encircled by triple walls. Borgo Maggiore, farther down the slope, was for centuries San Marino’s commercial centre, and Serravalle, beneath its castle of the Malatesta family, is agricultural and industrial. Most of San Marino’s landscape is agricultural in character, but industrial concerns have intruded on the centuries-old forms of agricultural life.

The San Marino constitution, originating from the Statutes of 1600, provides for a parliamentary form of government. The Great and General Council (Parliament) has 60 members, elected every five years by all adult citizens. It has legislative and administrative powers and every six months nominates the two captains regent (capitani reggenti), who hold office for that period and may not be elected again until three years have elapsed. The Great and General Council is headed by the captains regent, who are heads of state and of the administration. The Congress of State, a council of ministers, is composed of 10 members, elected by the Great and General Council from among its members, and constitutes the central organ of executive power. Each member has charge of a ministerial department.

Social programs for the citizens of San Marino are extensive. The state attempts to keep unemployment in check by seeking to provide employment for those who cannot find work with private concerns. All citizens (who make social security contributions) receive free, comprehensive, high-quality medical care and assistance in sickness, accident, and old age, as well as family allowances. The state aids home ownership through its buildings schemes. Education is free up to age 14. The University of San Marino was founded in 1985. A public security force of about 50 persons provides national defense.

A network of roads connects San Marino with the surrounding regions of Italy. Motorcoach services connect San Marino city with Rimini, Italy, and, in summer, directly with the Adriatic coast. The main airport serving San Marino is the Federico Fellini International Airport in Rimini. There are no railroads, but the capital is reached from Borgo Maggiore by means of a cable railway.

People, Economy, and Government of San Marino

Virtually all of the republic's inhabitants speak Italian and are Roman Catholic. About half of San Marino citizens live abroad, mainly in Italy, the United States, and France. Of note in San Marino are the Basilica of Santo Marino; towers (14th–16th cent.) built on each of the three peaks of Mt. Titano; the Gothic government house; and several museums of art.

San Marino's industries include banking and the manufacture of apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Tourism, however, is the country's economic mainstay. The sale of postage stamps and duty-free consumer goods are also sources of income. Wheat, grapes, corn, and olives are grown and cattle, pigs, and horses are raised. Wine and cheeses are the most important agricultural products. Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics are exported. The country imports many manufactured goods and much of its food, mostly from Italy. The republic receives an annual subsidy from Italy in return for having renounced certain rights, such as establishing a broadcasting station and growing tobacco. Although San Marino mints its own coins, Italian and Vatican City currencies are in general use.

San Marino is governed under the constitution of 1600 and the electoral law of 1926. Two regents ( Capitani Reggenti ), who are heads of state, are selected by the legislature from among its members for a period of six months. The secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, who is the head of government, is elected by the legislature for a five-year term, as is the cabinet. Legislative power in San Marino is vested in the popularly elected Grand Council ( Consiglio Grande e Generale ), which is made up of 60 members elected to five-year terms. Administratively, the country is divided into nine municipalities.


History of San Marino

According to tradition, San Marino was founded about A.D. 350 and had the good luck for centuries to stay out of the many wars and feuds on the Italian peninsula. It is the oldest republic in the world. San Marino has survived, completely intact, attacks by other self-governing Italian city-states, the Napoleonic Wars, the unification of Italy, and two world wars. Those born in San Marino remain citizens and can vote no matter where they live. It joined the United Nations in 1992.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded about A.D. 350 and had the good luck for centuries to stay out of the many wars and feuds on the Italian peninsula. It is the oldest republic in the world. San Marino has survived, completely intact, attacks by other self-governing Italian city-states, the Napoleonic Wars, the unification of Italy, and two world wars. Those born in San Marino remain citizens and can vote no matter where they live. It joined the United Nations in 1992.

The Captains Regent, an elected pair, serves as San Marino's heads of state. The two people are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council of San Marino. Each new pair takes office the first day of every April and October. As of Oct. 1, 2014, the current two heads of state and government are Gian Franco Terenzi and Guerrino Zanotti.

San Marino in 2004

San Marino Area: 61.2 sq km (23.6 sq mi) Population (2004 est.): 29,400 Capital: San Marino Heads of state and government: The republic is governed by two capitani reggenti, or coregents, appointed ...>>>Read On<<<

Disclaimer

This is not the official site of this country. Most of the information in this site were taken from the U.S. Department of State, The Central Intelligence Agency, The United Nations, [1],[2], [3], [4], [5],[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14],[15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24],[25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],[31], [32], [33], [34], and the [35].

Other sources of information will be mentioned as they are posted.