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Marshall Islands

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Major Cities of Marshall Islands in the Geographic Region of Oceania

MajuroEbayeArnoJaborWotjeMiliNamdrikEbonKiliLikiepAilukUjaeAurUtrikLaeMejitWothoLibJabatRongelapNew Rongelap

Marshall Islands Photo Gallery
Marshall Islands Realty



THE MARSHALL ISLANDS COAT OF ARMS
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Marshall Islands - Location Map (2013) - MHL - UNOCHA.svg
Location of Marshall Islands within the geographic region of Oceania
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Map of Marshall Islands
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Flag Description of Marshall Islands:two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band; the colors may derive from the blue and red livery design used in the principality's household in the 18th century; the prince's crown was introduced in 1937 to distinguish the flag from that of Haiti.

Herbal Remedies and Medicinal Cures for Diseases, Ailments, Sicknesses that afflict Humans and Animals - HOME PAGE
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Aloe Vera Astragalus Bankoro Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh Cat's Claw Chamomile Chasteberry Coconut Cranberry Dandelion Echinacea Ephedra European Elder Tree Evening Primrose Fenugreek Feverfew Flaxseed Garlic Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng (Asian) Golden Seal Grape Seed Green Tea Hawthorn Hoodia Horse Chestnut Kava Lavender Licorice Malunggay Moringa Oleifera Milk Thistle Mistletoe Passion Flower Peppermint Oil Red Clover Ringworm Bush (Akapulko) – Cassia alata Saw Palmetto St. John's Wort Tawa Tawa Turmeric Valerian Yohimbe
accept the bitter to get better


Official name Majol (Marshallese); Republic of the Marshall Islands)
Form of government unitary republic with one legislative house1 (Nitijela, or Parliament [33])
Head of state and government President: Christopher Loeak
Capital Majuro2
Official language Marshallese3
Official religion none
Monetary unit U.S. dollar (U.S.$)
Population (2013 est.) 53,600COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 70
Total area (sq km) 181
Urban-rural population

Urban: (2011) 72.2%
Rural: (2011) 27.8%

Life expectancy at birth

Male: (2011) 69.7 years
Female: (2011) 74 years

Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate

Male: (2007) 95%
Female: (2007) 95.3%

GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2013) 4,200

1In addition, the Council of Iroij (Council of Chiefs), a 12-member body of tribal chiefs, serves in an advisory capacity.

2Local name of town is DUD (an acronym for Delap [Woja], Uliga, and Djarrit [Rita]—three small islands now merged by landfill).

3Language of the Nitijela, or Parliament.


Background of Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands, officially Republic of the Marshall Islands, Marshallese Majōl, country of the central Pacific Ocean. It consists of some of the easternmost islands of Micronesia. The Marshalls are composed of more than 1,200 islands and islets in two parallel chains of coral atolls—the Ratak, or Sunrise, to the east, and the Ralik, or Sunset, to the west. The chains lie about 125 miles (200 kilometres) apart and extend some 800 miles northwest to southeast. Majuro atoll is the nominal capital of the republic. Government offices are located in the town of Delap-Uliga-Djarrit, named for three islands that were once separated but were later joined by landfill.

The Marshalls were administered by the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands from 1947 to 1986, when the Trust Territory was dissolved by the U.S. government.

Marshall Islands, officially Republic of the Marshall Islands, Marshallese Majōl, country of the central Pacific Ocean. It consists of some of the easternmost islands of Micronesia. The Marshalls are composed of more than 1,200 islands and islets in two parallel chains of coral atolls—the Ratak, or Sunrise, to the east, and the Ralik, or Sunset, to the west. The chains lie about 125 miles (200 kilometres) apart and extend some 800 miles northwest to southeast. Majuro atoll is the nominal capital of the republic. Government offices are located in the town of Delap-Uliga-Djarrit, named for three islands that were once separated but were later joined by landfill.

The Marshalls were administered by the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands from 1947 to 1986, when the Trust Territory was dissolved by the U.S. government.


Geography of Marshall Islands

The Land

None of the 29 low-lying coral atolls and the five coral islands in the Marshall group rises to more than 20 feet (six metres) above high tide. The islands are coral caps set on the rims of submerged volcanoes rising from the ocean floor. The island units of the Marshalls are scattered over about 180,000 square miles of the Pacific. The largest atoll in the group and in the world is Kwajalein, which has a land area of only six square miles but surrounds a 655-square-mile lagoon. The Marshall Islands’ nearest neighbours are Wake Island (north), Kiribati and Nauru (south), and the Federated States of Micronesia (west).

The climate is tropical, with a mean annual temperature for the entire group of 82 °F (28 °C). Annual precipitation varies from 20 to 30 inches (500 to 800 mm) in the north to 160 inches in the southern atolls. The wettest months are October and November. Several of the northern atolls are uninhabited owing to insufficient rainfall. Most of the Marshall Islands are true atolls, consisting of an irregular, oval-shaped coral reef surrounding a lagoon; the islets lie along the coral reef. The islands and islets of the Ratak chain tend to be more heavily wooded than those of the Ralik. Coconut and pandanus palms and breadfruit trees are the principal vegetation. Soils are generally sandy and low in fertility.


Demography of Marshall Islands

The People

The native people of the Marshalls are Micronesians. The most populous atolls are Majuro and Kwajalein, which offers employment at the U.S. missile testing range; together they have almost three-fourths of the country’s total population. The rest of the population lives in traditional villages on the outer islands away from the two urban centres. American missionaries arrived in the Marshalls in the 1850s and had notable success. The Marshallese today are predominantly Christian. The Marshallese and English languages are spoken, but only a minority are fluent in the latter.


Economy of Marshall Islands

The republic’s main sources of revenue are substantial U.S. subsidies under a Compact of Free Association and the leasing of land for the U.S. missile testing range on Kwajalein. Employment and modern amenities at both Majuro and Kwajalein serve as magnets that draw people to the two urban centres.

On the outer islands, subsistence farming, fishing, and the raising of pigs and poultry are the principal economic activities. Coconut, pandanus, breadfruit, and taro are the major food crops. The production of copra is the chief source of income for the outer islands. The principal import is processed foods. Other major imports include machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, and fuels, primarily from the United States, Japan, and Australia.

Transportation among the atolls and islands is by boat or air. Government-owned ships make scheduled trips among the islands. Several commercial cargo lines also serve the islands. Majuro has a commercial dock complex, and many of the atolls have good anchorage within their lagoons. Majuro and Kwajalein have international airports, and domestic and regional flights link some of the other atolls and islands.


Government and Society of Marshall Islands

Under the constitution adopted in 1979, the government consists of a president elected by a unicameral, 33-member parliament known as the Nitijela. The Council of Iroij (Chiefs) has mainly a consultative function, concerned with traditional laws and customs.

Hospitals on Majuro and Ebeye (part of Kwajalein Atoll) and dispensaries on other islands provide health care. There are primary schools, both public and church-run, on the inhabited islands and islets. Majuro and Jaluit atolls each have a public secondary school. Majuro is also the site of the College of the Marshall Islands (1993), which grants certificates and associate degrees in a variety of programs.


Politics The Marshall Islands has a constitutional government in free association with the U.S. The executive comprises a President, who is both the chief of state and head of government, and who is elected by Parliament from among its members for a four-year term. The President selects a cabinet from among the members of the legislature.

The legislature is a unicameral 33-seat body, or Nitijela. Members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. A Council of Chiefs, or Ironij, is a 12-member body comprised of tribal chiefs that advises on matters involving customary law and practice. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court, a High Court and a Traditional Rights Court.

There have been no formally organized political parties. What has existed resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, party platforms, or party structures. There have been a number of local and national elections since the Republic of the Marshall Islands was founded, and in general, democracy has functioned well. The United Democratic Party, running on a reform platform, won the 1999 Parliamentary election, taking control of the Presidency and cabinet. Despite the Constitution, traditional chiefs largely controlled the government until 1999, when, following corruption allegations, the aristocratic government was overthrown. The “commoner” Kessai Note replaced Imata Kabua. Note was was re-elected in 2003.

The Marshall Islands has no formal administrative divisions, but the territory is divided into 26 legislative districts, which correspond to the inhabited islands and atolls of the country.

Culture Life of Marshall Islands

The people of the Marshall Islands tend to identify with being Marshallese. This identity is strongly tied to the country itself, but is more engrained in the culture of the people. More than the ethnicity, language, and food of the people, the Marshallese identity is heavily invested in the mentality of the people, with a dependence on the land and seas around them. With rising water levels this attitude and identity is becoming more tied to environmental issues. On a secondary level the ethnicity and other aspects of the culture are also important in defining what it means to be Marshallese.


Although now in decline, the Marshallese were once able navigators, using the stars and stick and shell charts. They are also experienced in canoe building and still hold annual competitions involving the unique oceanic sailing canoe, the proa.

A proa is a multihull canoe consisting of two (usually) unequal parallel hulls, superficially similar to an outrigger canoe. Found in many configurations and forms, it was developed as a sailing vessel in Micronesia, and forms of it may be found as far away as Madagascar and Sri Lanka. The word "proa" comes from "perahu," the word for "boat" in Malay.

Since independence, big disparities in wealth have appeared. Majuro has million dollar homes next to run-down and overcrowded plywood and rusted tin dwellings. Those who can afford concrete homes and cars have moved from urban districts (Delap, Uliga, Djarrit) to suburbs that extend from Rairek to Majuro.

Meals balance a drink with a food; fish or meat complement the staples—breadfruit, arrowroot, pandanus, and taro, as well as imported rice, flour, and sugar. Indigenous seafoods, birds, and eggs are supplemented with pork, chicken, and an increasing variety of tinned meats. Coffee and cola have replaced coconut milk as the primary drink. While outer islanders still rely on indigenous foods, overpopulation on Majuro and Ebeye means residents rely on imports. Limited affordable imported foods has resulted in high rates of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and other diet-related diseases.

Infants have few restrictions on their activities, and are nursed until two or three years of age, or until the birth of a younger sibling. They are carried on the hip by working mothers or older siblings. By the age of four or five, children help with babies, run errands, and attend to small chores around the residence. Young boys are free to explore beyond the village, and they go on fishing and gathering expeditions.

The public school system provides education through grade 12, although admission to secondary school is selective. The elementary program employs a bilingual/bicultural curriculum. English is introduced in the first grade. There is one post-secondary institution—the College of the Marshall Islands.

History of Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands were settled initially around the beginning of the Christian era by Micronesians who may have been influenced by early Polynesian (Lapita) culture. Radiocarbon dates from earth-oven charcoal samples that were excavated in Laura village on Majuro yielded dates of about 30 bce and 50 ce. The early Marshall Islanders were skilled navigators and made long canoe voyages among the atolls.

Sighted in 1529 by the Spanish navigator Álvaro Saavedra, the Marshalls lacked the wealth to encourage exploitation or mapping. The British captain Samuel Wallis chanced upon Rongerik and Rongelap atolls while sailing from Tahiti to Tinian. The British naval captains John Marshall and Thomas Gilbert partially explored the Marshalls in 1788, but much of the mapping was done by Russian expeditions under Adam Johann Krusenstern (1803) and Otto von Kotzebue (1815 and 1823). U.S. whalers frequented the islands from the 1820s, and U.S. and Hawaiian Protestant missionaries began efforts to convert the islanders in the 1850s. Germany established a coaling station on Jaluit Atoll by treaty with island chiefs and in 1886, by agreement with Great Britain, established a protectorate over the Marshalls. Japan seized the islands in 1914 and later (after 1919) administered them as a League of Nations mandate. Occupied by the United States in World War II, following heavy fighting at Kwajalein and Enewetak, the Marshall Islands were made part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands under jurisdiction of the United States in 1947. After their populations were removed to other atolls, Bikini and Enewetak served as an official testing ground for U.S. nuclear bombs (1946–58). The tests stopped in 1958 and cleanup efforts began in the late 1960s. During the trial resettlement of the Bikinians, however, their atoll was found to be too contaminated for permanent habitation, and by the late 1970s the people had to be evacuated once again. The Enewetak people were returned to their homeland, and a program to monitor Bikini was put in place.

After voting to separate from the other entities of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, in 1978, the Marshall Islands drew up a constitution that voters approved in 1979. It formed the republic and brought internal self-government. In 1982 the government signed the Compact of Free Association with the United States. This agreement, approved by the voters in 1983, requires that the United States remain responsible for defense and external security and that it provide financial assistance for the republic. The compact entitles the United States to use the missile testing range on Kwajalein Atoll, and provides for the republic to become fully independent and to alter its status with the United States at any time, subject to approval of the residents through plebiscites. In 1983 the islanders reopened negotiations on the compact’s provision regarding compensation for the people of the four atolls affected by the U.S. nuclear tests. The United States agreed to set up a separate fund for the people of the four atolls and established an open-ended fund to cover personal injury claims among the islanders; it also agreed to set up a joint U.S.-Marshallese claims tribunal. A further agreement set up a fund to improve living conditions on Ebeye island, where all Micronesians working on the Kwajalein missile range and base resided. The Trust Territory was dissolved in 1990 with the approval of the UN Security Council, and on September 17, 1991, the Marshall Islands became a member of the UN.


Atoll, Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands in 2014

Marshall Islands Area: 181 sq km (70 sq mi) Population (2014 est.): 53,800 Capital: Majuro Head of state and government: President Christopher Loeak The economy of the Marshall Islands was stagnant ...>>>Read On<<<


Disclaimer

This is not the official site of this country. Most of the information in this site were taken from the U.S. Department of State, The Central Intelligence Agency, The United Nations, [1],[2], [3], [4], [5],[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14],[15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24],[25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],[31], [32], [33], [34], and the [35].

Other sources of information will be mentioned as they are posted.