|THE GUINEA BISSAU COAT OF ARMS|
Location of Guinea Bissau within the continent of Africa
Map of Guinea Bissau
Flag Description of Guinea Bissau:The Guinea flag was officially adopted on September 24, 1973.
The flag's black star is symbolic of African unity, yellow stands for the sun, green is hope, and red represents the blood shed during the long struggle for independence from Portugal.
Official name Républica da Guiné-Bissau (Republic of Guinea-Bissau)
Form of government republic1 with one legislative house (National People’s Assembly )
Head of state President: José Mário Vaz
Head of government Prime Minister: Domingos Simões Pereira
Official language Portuguese
Official religion none
Monetary unit CFA franc (CFAF)
Population (2013 est.) 1,684,000COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 13,948
Total area (sq km) 36,125
Urban-rural population Urban: (2011) 30.2%
Rural: (2011) 69.8%
Life expectancy at birth Male: (2012) 47.2 years
Female: (2012) 51.1 years
Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male: (2010) 68.2%
Female: (2010) 40.6%
GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2012) 550
1A transitional government was designated on May 11, 2012, in the aftermath of a military coup on April 12, 2012; power was transferred to a democratically elected government on June 23, 2014.
Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from an existing illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place.
Guinea-Bissau, country of western Africa. Situated on the Atlantic coast, the predominantly low-lying country is slightly hilly farther inland. The name Guinea remains a source of debate; it is perhaps a corruption of an Amazigh (Berber) word meaning “land of the blacks.” The country also uses the name of its capital, Bissau, to distinguish it from Guinea, its neighbour to the east and south.
In the 15th and early 16th centuries the Portuguese commanded the entire western coast of Africa. Gradually their monopoly gave way to incursions by French, Dutch, English, and other European powers. The French pressured both the northern and southern borders of what is now Guinea-Bissau and placed the Casamance region of southern Senegal fully under French rule after the late 19th century. The English rivaled Portuguese authority on the coast, particularly at Bolama; a long-running dispute between the two powers resulted with Guinea-Bissau under Portuguese rule. Although Bissau is the country’s present capital and largest city, the towns of Bolama and Cacheu were important during the slave trade and in the colonial era.
Geography of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau is bounded by Senegal to the north, Guinea to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It includes the Bijagós (Bissagos) archipelago and other islands that lie off the coast.
Almost all of Guinea-Bissau is low-lying and bathed daily by tidal waters that reach as far as 62 miles (100 km) inland. In the southeastern part of the country, the Fouta Djallon plateau rises approximately 600 feet (180 metres). The Boé Hills extend from the western slopes of the Fouta Djallon to the Corubal basin and the Gabú Plain.
- Drainage and soils
The coastal area is demarcated by a dense network of drowned valleys called rias. The Bafatá Plateau is drained by the Geba and Corubal rivers. The Gabú Plain occupies the northeastern portion of the country and is drained by the Cacheu and Geba rivers and their tributaries. The interior plains are part of the southern edge of the Sénégal River basin. The uniform elevation of the mature floodplain allows rivers to meander and renders the area susceptible to flooding during the rainy season. Some eastern portions of Guinea-Bissau form a part of the upper basin of the Gambia River system.
Tidal penetration into the interior, facilitated by Guinea-Bissau’s flat coastal topography, carries some agricultural advantage: the surge of brackish water can be used to irrigate the extensive drowned rice paddies called bolanhas. Anticolonial warfare had a devastating effect on Guinea-Bissau’s soils. Arable land that fell out of use was subject to soil erosion, and, with the destruction of protective riverine dikes, the arability of some soils was compromised by excessive salination.
Guinea-Bissau has a generally tropical climate influenced by the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), a belt of converging trade winds that circles the Earth near the Equator. There are two pronounced seasons: the hot, rainy season, which usually lasts from June to November, and the hot, dry season. April and May are the hottest months, and temperatures can reach the high 90s F (mid-30s C). Precipitation does not vary greatly by elevation in Guinea-Bissau, although it does vary between coastal and inland areas; the coast receives some 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of precipitation, whereas the interior is influenced by the tropical savanna climate, with greater variation in precipitation and temperature.
- Plant and animal life
Guinea-Bissau’s three ecological zones—the tidal estuaries, the heavily forested interior plain, and the savanna—are home to remarkably diverse flora and fauna. Aquatic and riverine birds such as flamingos and pelicans are especially numerous in the coastal swamps, which are also inhabited by a variety of reptiles such as snakes, crocodiles, and sea turtles, the latter of which are endangered. In the plains and forests, lizards, gazelles, antelopes, monkeys and apes, parrots, hyenas, and leopards abound. Although there was once a substantial elephant population, it has since been virtually eliminated. Many wild animals are hunted for their meat and hides.
Demography of Guinea-Bissau
- Ethnic and linguistic groups
Guinea-Bissau’s population is dominated by more than 20 African ethnicities, including the Balante, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country, the numerous Fulani and their many subgroups, the Diola, the Nalu, the Bijagó, the Landuma, the Papel (Pepel), and the Malinke. There is also a small Cape Verdean minority with mixed African, European, Lebanese, and Jewish origins. During the colonial period the European population consisted mainly of Portuguese but also included some Lebanese, Italian, French, and English groups, as well as members of other nationalities. Notably, there was never a substantial settler population in Guinea-Bissau, as there was in other Portuguese colonies.
Among the African languages spoken in Guinea-Bissau, some 20 languages and dialects classified in the Atlantic and Mande branches of Niger-Congo languages predominate. Although Portuguese is the country’s official and formal language, it is Crioulo—a creole that emerged during the slave trade—that is spoken as the lingua franca and exerts a unifying influence in the rural areas.
About half the population practice traditional beliefs, which include ancestor worship, possession, and animism and are especially prevalent along the coast and in the central regions. About two-fifths of the population are Muslim; among Christians, who make up almost one-tenth of the population, Roman Catholicism predominates. Christianity and Islam are enriched with African traditional beliefs, which results in a unique religious syncretism; saints’ days, for example, may be celebrated with drumming, processionals, masks, and traditional dance.
- Settlement patterns
Most of the population of Guinea-Bissau live in small villages and the country’s several main towns. The population is sparse on the low-lying lands of the coast and in the savanna regions. The majority of Guinea-Bissau’s population traditionally lived in rural villages and individual households. From 1963 to 1974, during the armed struggle for independence, about one-third of the rural population fled to neighbouring countries for refuge. Those who remained tried to restructure their lives in liberated zones, while the colonial military imposed a system of aldeamentos, concentrated settlements designed to isolate the population from the nationalist forces. Although migration to urban centres such as Bissau, Cacheu, and Bolama had generally been increasing since independence, much of the urban population fled during the fighting that erupted in the late 1990s.
- Demographic trends
Population growth in Guinea-Bissau is lower than that of the rest of the African continent. Life expectancy for both men and women is well below the African average and substantially lower than the world average, and infant mortality is high. The population of Guinea-Bissau is, on the whole, very young: more than two-fifths of the population are under age 15, and more than two-thirds are under 30. The majority of the population are rural; only about one-third are urban.
Guinea-Bissau does not have a significant expatriate population living outside the country, except those in the neighbouring countries of Guinea and Senegal. Historically, the only traditional pattern of emigration was due to human trafficking; during the 15th through 19th centuries, thousands of Guineans were exported to Cape Verde and the New World, especially to Cuba and the northern Brazilian states of Grão Pará and Maranhão, as slaves or indentured servants.
Economy of Guinea-Bissau
The economy of Guinea-Bissau includes a mixture of state-owned and private companies. Plans for industrial development have been reduced, and those supporting agriculture have been increased. The number of state-owned businesses declined significantly after the government adopted a liberal free-market economy in 1987, as endorsed by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
Guinea-Bissau is easily self-sufficient in food production, and the majority of labour is devoted to agriculture at the subsistence level; some crops are raised for export. Various small-scale industries and services also generate a part of the gross national product. Because of a variety of damaging factors—including an exploitative colonial inheritance, war damage, inflation, debt service, corruption, subsidization, poor planning, civil disorder, and mismanagement—the economy has fallen far short of its promise, resulting in a protracted negative balance of trade and Guinea-Bissau’s status as one of the world’s poorest countries. Various foreign aid and loan programs have been sought to address this deficit.
- Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
The economy is largely agricultural, with good prospects for forestry and fishery development. Foods produced for local consumption include rice, vegetables, beans, cassava (manioc), potatoes, palm oil, and peanuts (groundnuts). Livestock includes pigs, goats, sheep, cattle, and poultry. Fish and shrimp, raised for both domestic consumption and export, are also important. Guinea-Bissau is heavily forested, with forest cover on about three-fifths of its land. Most wood harvests are used for domestic fuel, but the country exports small amounts of sawn wood. The export of commercial items such as cashews, palm products, rice, peanuts, timber, and cotton has long played an important role in the country’s economy.
Large portions of land are not cultivated, because of both the traditional crop rotation practice of slash-and-burn agriculture as well as a lack of agricultural credit and investment due to the political and military conditions.
- Resources and power
There has not been a comprehensive survey of mineral resources, but large deposits of bauxite in the east along the Guinean border and phosphates in the centre and northwest have been found. Offshore petroleum and gold are additional assets that could be developed more fully with improved infrastructure.
As a low-lying country with a pronounced rainy season, Guinea-Bissau has plenty of water for subsistence and commercial agriculture and human consumption, although water quality and water delivery systems still need improvement. The Corubal River has immense hydroelectric potential, particularly at the Saltinho Rapids.
Manufacturing in Guinea-Bissau is founded chiefly upon artisanal industries such as basketry, blacksmithing, tanning, and tailoring. Only a few small-scale industries exist; these include food processing, brewing, and the processing of cotton, timber, and other goods. Much of Guinea-Bissau’s industrial capacity was damaged during the conflict of the late 1990s.
- Finance and trade
A major restructure of Guinea-Bissau’s banking system that began in 1989 replaced the National Bank of Guinea-Bissau with separate institutions including a central bank, a commercial bank, and a national credit bank. Guinea-Bissau joined the West African Economic and Monetary Union and the Franc Zone in 1997, and the Guinean peso was eventually replaced by the CFA (Communauté Financière Africaine) franc after the two currencies coexisted for several months. The role of the central bank was taken over by the Central Bank of West African States, which is based in Dakar, Seneg. Participation in the banking system among Guineans is very low, and only a fraction maintain bank accounts.
During the colonial period Portugal was by far Guinea-Bissau’s most important trading partner. Although Portugal retained a significant role after independence, Guinea-Bissau maintains important trade relationships with Senegal and Italy, from which Guinea-Bissau receives the majority of its imports, as well as with India and Nigeria, which are recipients of most of its exports.
- Labour and taxation
Some three-fourths of the labour force is engaged in agricultural production. Workers are permitted to join labour unions; of those who are union members, the vast majority are government or parastatal (government-owned enterprise) employees. The majority of the country’s tax revenue is earned through tax levied on international trade transactions, income taxes, and general sales taxes.
- Transportation and telecommunications
The transportation system in Guinea-Bissau is generally poor because of inadequacies with bridges, connecting services, and maintenance. Some roads in Guinea-Bissau are paved for all-weather use, but most of the country is served by unpaved roadways. Many households and hamlets are accessible only by footpaths and canoes. There are no railways.
The airport at Bissau handles international air traffic, while several smaller airports and landing strips serve the inner portions of the country. Shipping and ferry services connect the sea and river ports along the coast with the interior. The country’s main port is located at Bissau.
Government and Society of Guinea-Bissau
- Constitutional framework
Guinea-Bissau’s constitution, promulgated in 1984, has been amended several times. Under the constitution, Guinea-Bissau is a republic. Executive power is vested in the president, who serves as the head of state and government; the prime minister; and the Council of Ministers. The president is popularly elected to serve a five-year term and governs with the assistance of the prime minister, whom he appoints. The legislative branch of government consists of the unicameral National People’s Assembly; members are popularly elected to four-year terms. A new constitution was adopted by the National People’s Assembly in 2001, but it was not promulgated.
The country has experienced several coup attempts, some of which have been successful in toppling the government in place at the time. The most recent military coup took place in April 2012. A transitional government was established the next month, tasked with the goal of restoring a regular civilian government within one year. After some delay, a democratically elected government was installed in June 2014.
- Local government
Guinea-Bissau is divided administratively into regiões (regions) and setores (sectors), including the autonomous sector of Bissau. The most basic unit of government is the tabanca (village) or, in towns, the neighbourhood committee. During and after the liberation struggle the neighbourhood committee was the basic organizational unit of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde; PAIGC), initially the sole legal party for Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde.
The judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court, Regional Courts, and Sectoral Courts. The Supreme Court, which consists of nine judges, is the final court of appeal. The Regional Courts hear major cases and serve as the final court of appeal for the Sectoral Courts, which hear minor civil cases. The continued need for personnel, equipment, and facilities resources—such as judges and prisons—has challenged the efficacity of the justice sector and has made the country susceptible to organized crime activities including the trafficking of humans, drugs, and weapons.
- Political process
Guinea-Bissau became a multiparty state in 1991. It had previously been a single-party state, led since independence by the PAIGC. In addition to the PAIGC, other political parties active in the country include the Social Renewal Party (Partido para a Renovação Social; PRS), the United Social Democratic Party (Partido Unido Social Democrata; PUSD), the Electoral Union (União Eleitoral; UE), and the United Popular Alliance (Aliança Popular Unida; APU). The constitution guarantees the equality of men and women in all aspects of political, economic, social, and cultural life, and a number of women have served as members of the National People’s Assembly, as government ministers, and as state secretaries.
The country’s military capability consists of an army, a navy, an air force, and a paramilitary force, of which the army and the paramilitary are the most substantial. Military service is determined by selective conscription, and individuals are eligible for service from 18 years of age.
- Health and welfare
The health care delivery system during the colonial period was grossly inadequate. Health care facilities were concentrated in the cities and towns, and the average expenditure per person was extremely low. Most never saw a doctor or dentist. Health care services have improved since independence, but the situation is still very poor. Infant mortality rates remain high, in large part because of diarrhea, malnutrition, and upper respiratory infections. Improper sanitation and waste treatment remain significant public health challenges, and much of the population remains undernourished. Tropical diseases, especially malaria, are widespread and entail high rates of mortality. Other health concerns include cholera, schistosomiasis, filariasis, and leprosy; mortalities resulting from automobile accidents, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse are increasing.
Under favourable circumstances, clinics and dressing stations (first-aid centres) operate at the local level with the small hospitals that operate in the larger towns. The main hospital in Bissau routinely faces critical shortages of necessities such as drugs, bandages, anesthetics, antibiotics, and plasma. Family planning, maternal and infant health care, power and water supply, and refrigeration are all rudimentary. Although the number of hospital beds has greatly increased since independence, availability is still vastly short of need. Furthermore, since the number of nurses has not kept pace with the increase in hospital beds, nursing service has actually declined.
Officially, six years of primary education is compulsory for children age 7 to 14. For those children who show scholastic promise, there are five years of secondary education. Amílcar Cabral University and the University of Colinas de Boe, both founded in 2003 and based in Bissau, provide opportunities for higher education. There are also schools for teacher training, nursing, and vocational training.
Education during the colonial period was very poor. In the 1970s only a minute proportion of the population was enrolled in primary school, and illiteracy was almost universal. During the war of national liberation (1963–74), the PAIGC attempted to address this severe problem by establishing its own school system in the liberated zones and in external bases. Nevertheless, education in the context of the war was predictably difficult, and enrollment was inconsistent.
Guinea-Bissau’s educational system continues to face serious challenges. Only some two-fifths of school-age children attend school, and adult illiteracy remains high, particularly among women. The civil warfare of 1998–99 greatly disturbed a number of services, the educational system among them; progress in its reestablishment has been slow. There is also a shortage of teaching staff in rural areas in particular, where teachers themselves are frequently not well educated and where the ratio of students to teachers is very high.
Culture Life of Guinea-Bissau
Five centuries of the “civilizing mission” of Portuguese colonialism did not penetrate deeply in Guinea-Bissau, and African culture and traditions are very much in place. These include the intact African languages with their associated folklore, sayings, dances, and music. Cape Verdean music—such as funana, a fast-paced genre that features the gaita, an accordion-like instrument, and finaçon, performed by female vocalists—has become increasingly popular in cities and towns.
Daily life and social customs
Christian holidays, including Christmas, and Muslim holidays, including Tabaski (also known as ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā, marking the culmination of the hajj rites near Mecca) and Korité (also known as ʿĪd al-Fiṭr, marking the end of Ramadan), are observed in Guinea-Bissau. In addition to these, the death of Amílcar Cabral is observed on January 20, Labour Day on May 1, and the Anniversary of the Movement of Readjustment on November 14.
The government organizes formal expressions of national culture through the national arts institute, which maintains a school of music and dance and conducts periodic concerts and folkloric programs. A wide array of traditional music, dance, dress, and handicrafts remain deeply rooted in village and ethnic life.
The Museum of Guinea-Bissau and the national library are located in Bissau. The National Institute of Studies and Research, also located in Bissau, was among the institutions badly damaged during the fighting of 1998–99. With international support, a restoration program began in 2000.
Sports and recreation
There are many traditional African sports in Guinea-Bissau, but wrestling is among the oldest and most popular. A means of martial arts training and a rite of passage, it is common in villages. The African board game of ouri, a forerunner of backgammon, is played throughout the country. Football (soccer) is the most popular Western sport in Guinea-Bissau. The country features several clubs, and since 1986 its football federation has been a member of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Basketball has also developed a following, and the national federation is affiliated with the International Basketball Federation. Diving and swimming are popular on the country’s islands, and excellent fishing conditions can be found in the rivers and coastal areas.
Guinea-Bissau’s national Olympic committee, which was established in 1992, was recognized by the International Olympic Committee in 1995. The country made its Olympic debut at the 1996 Atlanta Games, where it competed in wrestling events.
Media and publishing
A number of radio stations operate in Guinea-Bissau. There are a limited number of television stations, including one run by the state. A number of newspapers and periodicals are circulated in the country, including the government newspaper, Nô Pintcha, and Correio-Bissau, which is distributed weekly. After the overthrow of Pres. Kumba Ialá in 2003, media conditions, which had grown repressive, were improved. Lack of financing and power supply are two significant challenges that continue to hinder the growth of Guinea-Bissau’s media capabilities.
History of Guinea-Bissau
The area that became Portuguese Guinea was first visited by the Portuguese in 1446–47, and in the 16th cent. it was an important source of slaves sent to South America. The territory was administered as part of the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands possession until 1879, when it became a separate colony. In 1951 it was constituted an overseas province.
In 1956, Amilcar Cabral founded the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). After some years of sporadic violence, the PAIGC launched a war of independence in Portuguese Guinea in the early 1960s; in 1973 it declared the province, renamed Guinea-Bissau, independent of Portugal. A government was established and elections for a national assembly were held in PAIGC-controlled areas. Following the coup in Portugal (1974), the new Portuguese government initiated negotiations with the PAIGC.
In Aug., 1974, an agreement was reached under which Portugal granted (Sept. 10) independence to Guinea-Bissau. Luis de Almeida Cabral (the brother of Amilcar Cabral, who had been assassinated in 1973) became the first president, and Guinea-Bissau was admitted to the United Nations that year. Although Portugal refused to give the Cape Verde Islands and Guinea-Bissau independence together (granting Cape Verde separate independence in 1975), the two maintained the PAIGC as a common political party for five years. Guinea-Bissau remained a single-party state with limited civil rights. Security was a primary concern in the early years of independence, as the regime was weak in Bissau where there was lingering support for the Portuguese.
In 1980 a coup brought João Bernardo Vieira to power. The new regime opposed unification with Cape Verde, but relations between the two nations were normalized in 1983. Although Vieira's regime in the 1980s was characterized by purgings of political enemies and suppression of dissent, he also introduced health reforms and initiatives to increase agricultural production and economic diversity. However, the economy did poorly and the country relied on outside aid to make up for enormous deficits. In 1991 the national assembly officially revoked the PAIGC's status as the sole legal party, and in 1994 Vieira was chosen as president in the country's first free elections.
An army mutiny began in June, 1998, eventually turning into a war in which neighboring Senegal and Guinea intervened on Vieira's behalf, but the coup almost marked the beginning of a period of economic and political troubles. In May, 1999, the military ousted Vieira and installed Malam Bacai Sanhá, the former head of parliament, as interim president. In Dec., 1999, two opposition parties won a majority in parliament, and, after defeating Sanhá in a runoff in Jan., 2000, Party for Social Renewal (PRS) candidate Kumba Yala won the presidency. An army rebellion in Nov., 2000, by former junta leader Gen. Ansumane Mane was crushed and Mane was killed. Yala, hampered by the poor economy and heading an unstable government, was ousted in Sept., 2003, by a military coup that subsequently received the support of many civilian leaders. Businessman Henrique Rosa was appointed president of a transitional national government. Parliamentary elections in Mar., 2004, resulted in a plurality for the PAIGC, and Carlos Gomes, Jr., became prime minister with the support of the PRS. In October the chief of the armed forces was killed in a brief mutiny over back pay, but a peaceful end to uprising was negotiated.
Presidential elections were held in June, 2005, and were dominated by the candidacies of former presidents Vieira (who returned from exile), Sanhá, and Yala (who had originally been barred from political activity but was nominated by the PRS and was permitted to run). The month before the election Yala claimed to be the rightful president, revoking his "renunciation of power" and occupying the presidential palace. Although Yala's move came to nothing, it raised tensions in the nation. When he placed third in the June vote Yala claimed to have won nonetheless, but ended up accepting the results even as he denied them. A runoff between Sanhá, who placed first but failed to win a majority, and Vieira in July resulted in a win for Vieira. Sanhá asserted the vote was marred by fraud, and his party, the PAIGC, refused until September to recognize the result.
At the end of Oct., 2005, Vieira dismissed Gomes as prime minister, and then appointed Aristides Gomes, a political ally, to the post. In Mar., 2006, fighting erupted when government troops attempted to oust Casamance rebels from Senegal who had established bases in NW Guinea-Bissau. A no-confidence vote in Gomes's goverment in Mar., 2007, led to the appointment of Martinho N'Dafa Cabi, a PAIGC leader, to the post the next month. In July, 2007, the president, citing the nation's financial straits, rescheduled the Mar., 2008, parliamentary elections so that they would coincide with the 2009 presidential election.
When Prime Minister Cabi dismissed several officials in July, 2008, without consulting the coalition parties, the PAIGC withdrew from the government; the president subsequently dissolved parliament and the cabinet and called for new elections in November. In August, Carlos Correia was named prime minister. Also that month, an attempted coup by the head of the navy, Rear Admiral José Américo Bubo Na Tchuto, was foiled. The parliamentary elections were won by the PAIGC, and in Jan., 2009, Carlos Gomes, Jr., again became prime minster.
Meanwhile, in Nov., 2008, there was another apparent coup attempt against the president; the armed forces chief of staff had, during the elections, accused the president of being involved with drug traffickers. In Jan., 2009, the president's guard was blamed for an assassination attempt against the armed forces chief, who subsequently was killed in an explosion in March. Vieira was assassinated the next day by soldiers who blamed him for the bombing, and parliament speaker Raimundo Pereira became interim president. The military subsequently continued a campaign of violence against perceived opponents. In April a former prime minister who had criticized the military was severely beaten by soldiers, and in June a presidential candidate and a former defense minister were killed (and subsequently accused of plotting a coup).
In the presidential election in late June, PAIGC candidate Malam Bacai Sanhá came in first but won only a plurality of the vote, necessitating a runoff with Kumba Yala in July, which Sanhá won. Yet another apparent coup attempt occurred in Apr., 2010, apparently by supporters of Rear Admiral Na Tchuto, who had returned to the country and found refuge in the UN's local headquarters in Dec., 2009; the government had been seeking his surrender. Though the government was not overthrown, real power in Guinea-Bissau appeared to shift to the military, in particular to Na Tchuto, who was subsequently accused by the U.S. government of drug trafficking. A possible coup attempt in Nov., 2011, led to the arrest of Na Tchuto and the former head of the army.
In Jan., 2012, President Sanha died abroad while in Paris for medical treatment; parliament speaker Raimundo Pereira became interim president. A coup in April was apparently sparked by the expected election of Carlos Gomes, Jr., as president in a runoff vote. The army was known not to favor Gomes, and his opponent, former president Yala, had lost badly in the first round and alleged the election had been rigged. In May, a transitional government was established with Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo, a former president of the assembly, as president, and Rui Duarte de Barros as prime minister; one of the coup leaders became defense minister, and West African forces were deployed in Guinea-Bissau as peacekeepers. Na Tchuto was released from prison in June.
According to the UN and other international officials, the flow of illegal drugs through the country increased after the coup. In Oct., 2012, an apparent coup attempt failed; the government accused Gomes, Portugal, and other Portuguese-speaking nations of being behind it. In Apr., 2013, Na Tchuto was arrested in international waters by U.S. drug agents in a drugs-for-weapons sting operation; Gen. Antonio Indjai, the armed forces chief, was later indicted by the United States on trafficking charges arising from the same case.
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