|THE GUERNSEY COAT OF ARMS|
Location of Guernsey within the continent of Asia
Map of Guernsey
Flag Description of Guernsey:white with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) extending to the edges of the flag and a yellow equal-armed cross of William the Conqueror superimposed on the Saint George cross; the red cross represents the old ties with England and the fact that Guernsey is a British Crown dependency; the gold cross is a replica of the one used by Duke William of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings
Official name Bailiwick of Guernsey
Political status crown dependency (United Kingdom) with one legislative house (States of Deliberation [451, 2, 3])
Head of state British Monarch: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Lieutenant Governor: Peter Walker
Head of government Chief Minister: Lyndon Trott 4, assisted by the Policy Council
Capital St. Peter Port
Official language English
Official religion none
Monetary unit Guernsey pound5
Population (2013 est.) 66,000
Total area (sq mi) 30
Total area (sq km) 79
Urban-rural population Urban: (2005) 30.9%
Rural: (2005) 69.1%
Life expectancy at birth Male: (2012) 79.6 years
Female: (2012) 85 years
Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male: 100%
GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2012) 50,488
1The States of Deliberation was reorganized in 2004.
2Includes 3 ex officio members (2 of whom have no voting rights) and 2 representatives from Alderney.
3Alderney and Sark have their own parliaments. The States of Alderney has a president and 10 elected members; Sark’s feudal system of government ended with the election of a 28-member assembly in December 2008.
4The first Chief Minister was elected by the States of Deliberation in May 2004.
5Equivalent in value to pound sterling (£); the Guernsey government issues both paper money and coins.
Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy, which held sway in both France and England. The islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Guernsey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the European Union. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
Guernsey, second largest of the Channel Islands. It is 30 miles (48 km) west of Normandy, Fr., and roughly triangular in shape. With Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou, and associated islets, it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Its capital is St. Peter Port.
In the south, Guernsey rises in a plateau to about 300 feet (90 metres), with ragged coastal cliffs. It descends in steps and is drained mainly by streams flowing northward in deeply incised valleys. Northern Guernsey is low-lying, although small outcrops of resistant rock form hills (hougues). The soil on lower ground is of blown sand, raised beach deposits, and the fills of old lagoons. The climate is maritime; snow and severe frost are rare, and the annual temperature range is only about 17 °F (9 °C). Annual rainfall varies from 30 to 35 inches (750–900 mm). The somewhat scanty water supplies are supplemented by seawater distillation.
mbly, the States of Deliberation, ultimately grew. In the 19th century the States of Deliberation emerged as a legislative assembly administering the island through executive committees. The assembly is presided over by the bailiff of Guernsey. The lieutenant governor is the personal representative of the British sovereign. Governmental and judicial proceedings on Guernsey are conducted in English, even though many of the island’s inhabitants speak Norman French as their first language.
Guernsey was never dominated by any one great landowning family, and the early growth of commerce in St. Peter Port, with later smuggling and privateering and 19th-century industrial development, weakened what remained of the feudal landlords’ power. During World War II many of Guernsey’s inhabitants were evacuated to England before the Germans occupied the island (July 1940–May 1945)
The population is mainly of Norman descent with an admixture of Breton. St. Peter Port and St. Sampson are the main towns. Dairy farming with the famous Guernsey breed of cattle (see photograph) is largely confined to the high land in the south. Market gardening is concentrated chiefly in the north, where greenhouses produce tomatoes, flowers, and grapes, mostly exported to England. Tourism has become an important part of Guernsey’s economy in the 20th century. The house in St. Peter Port in which the French author Victor Hugo resided from 1855 to 1870 is now a museum. The island relies increasingly on airline services and is served by an airport at La Villaize. There are shipping links with Jersey, Alderney, and Sark; London and Weymouth, Eng.; and Saint-Malo, Fr. Area Guernsey, 24 square miles (62 square km); Bailiwick of Guernsey, 30 square miles (78 square km). Pop. (2001) Guernsey, 59,710; Bailiwick of Guernsey, 62,692.
The Geography of Guernsey
Total Size: 78 square km
Size Comparison: about one-half the size of Washington, DC
Geographical Coordinates: 49 28 N, 2 35 W
World Region or Continent: Europe
General Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest
Geographical Low Point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Geographical High Point: unnamed location on Sark 114 m
Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast
The People of Guernsey
Type of Government: NA
Languages Spoken: English, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Independence: none (British crown dependency)
ational Holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Nationality: Channel Islander(s)
Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist
National Symbol:v Guernsey cow; donkey
National Anthem or Song: Sarnia Cherie (Guernsey Dear)
Economy of Guernsey
A spirit of enterprise, entrepreneurial skills and a flair for commerce have made Guernsey a centre of excellence for a number of industries over many hundreds of years.
In the last 50 years, finance has become the mainstay of the Guernsey economy so that today, of the 31,000 people employed in the Island, 6,500 (21%) work in financial services. Finance (37%) is the largest single direct contributor to the Island's Gross Domestic Product which stands at £2.2 billion (£35,000 per head of population).
The success of the financial services industry has helped sustain a stable economy within an unemployment rate of around 1%. In October 2014, the international credit rating agency, Standard & Poor's, assigned Guernsey a high grade AA+ credit rating and confirmed the Guernsey's outlook as stable.
As well as financial services, the Island boasts buoyant light industrial and services sectors. In addition, with its naturally beautiful landscape Guernsey remains a popular tourist destination where traditional industries such as horticulture, agriculture and fishing play an important part in the Island's economy.
Guernsey's Commerce and Employment Department is committed to encouraging further business development that will contribute to a diverse and sustainable economy and is exploring opportunities in the burgeoning areas of Intellectual Property, renewable energy and ICT, such as FinTech.
The States of Guernsey Policy and Research Unit can provide further statistics, information and facts and figures on the island.
Major Industries: tourism, banking
Agricultural Products: tomatoes, greenhouse flowers, sweet peppers, eggplant, fruit; Guernsey cattle
Natural Resources: cropland
Major Exports: tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables
Major Imports: coal, gasoline, oil, machinery and equipment
Currency: British pound (GBP); note - there is also a Guernsey pound
National GDP: $2,742,000,000
Government of Guernsey
The Island has its own parliament, The States of Deliberation, which is democratically elected. There are no political parties in Guernsey and therefore the Island is not prone to pendulum swings in regime or policy. The States is responsible for domestic affairs, its economy and tax regime. Guernsey enjoys full fiscal autonomy in tax and regulatory matters.
As a Crown Dependency, the Island's ties to the UK are through the Crown rather than the British Parliament, where Guernsey has no representation. The Lieutenant Governor is Her Majesty's personal representative and official channel of communication between the Crown and the UK Government and Guernsey. Special terms were negotiated for the Channel Islands on the UK's accession to the EEC. These are contained in Protocol 3 to the Treaty of Accession. The effect of the protocol is that the Island is within the Common Customs Area and the Common External Tariff, which allows access to EEC countries of physical exports without tariff barriers. Other Community rules do not apply to Guernsey, unless voluntarily accepted.
History of Guernsey
The islands have a rich and varied history going back many years much of which is recorded at The Guernsey Museum & Art Gallery, Castle Cornet, Fort Grey and through other organisations such as the Priaulx Library, Guernsey's National Trust, La Société Guernesiase and many others.
Humans are known to have lived in Guernsey since 10,000 BC. Archaeological digs have found evidence for farming in the Neolithic and Bronze Age and uncovered 'warrior graves' from the Iron Age. It was known as Lisia by the Romans and the name 'Guernsey' was probably given by the Vikings.
Guernsey was governed as part of the Duchy of Normandy since 933, however in 1204 the islanders bravely pledged allegiance to King John as he fought to maintain his territory in France. In 1206, King John ordered the construction of Castle Cornet to safeguard the harbour in St Peter Port from attacks by his enemies in France. Castle Cornet still stands to this day and houses five museums. The Normans gained control in the tenth century and brought both their language and distinctive legal system. After Normandy was lost to the French in 1204, Guernsey remained a possession of the English Crown, but never became part of England or the UK.Guernsey, is now a British Crown Dependency. It is the second largest of the Channel Islands, situated 30 miles north west of France and 80 miles south of England, and is self-governing .The Bailiwick of Guernsey includes the smaller neighbouring islands of Sark, Herm and Alderney.
The jurisdiction looks after its own fiscal affairs, has its own stamps and currency. Many international banks, fund managers and insurance companies are establishing here. Whilst the traditional industries of tourism, flower growing, fishing and dairy farming still play an important role in contributing to the local economy and there are also a number of high profile light industries based on the island.
The island boasts first class public facilities for it's 62,000+ residents including a refurbished airport terminal, yachting marinas, schools and medical services.
Guernsey-Breed of cattle
Guernsey, breed of dairy cattle originating on Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. Like the Jersey, this breed is thought to have descended from the cattle of nearby Normandy and Brittany. All the cattle of the Channel Islands were at one time known as Alderneys. After laws had been enacted prohibiting the importation of cattle to the islands except for slaughter, the Jersey and the Guernsey breeds came to be recognized. Guernsey cattle are fawn-coloured, marked with white, and are larger than the Jerseys. Guernseys are noted for the production of milk of a pronounced yellow colour. Like Jerseys, they are not desirable producers of beef.
The first Guernseys were exported to the United States in 1830, but it was
not until 1880 that the export business became extensive. Numbers of Guernsey cattle are to be found also in England, Australia, and Canada.
Holstein-Friesian: cows on a farm in Wisconsin [Credit: ©Robert Frerck/Odyssey Productions]branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals, primarily cows, for the production of milk and the various dairy products processed from it.
Milk for human consumption is produced primarily by the cow and the water buffalo. The goat also is an important milk producer in China, India, and other Asian countries and in Egypt. Goat’s milk is also produced in Europe and North America but, compared to cow’s milk, goat’s milk is relatively unimportant. Buffalo’s milk is produced in commercial quantities in some countries, particularly India. Where it is produced, buffalo’s milk is used in the same way as is cow’s milk, and in some areas the community milk supply consists of a mixture of both. This article treats the principles and practices of dairy farming. For a discussion of dairy products, see the article dairy product.
Dairy herdsDairy cows are divided into five major breeds: Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein–Friesian, and Jersey. There are many minor breeds, among them the Red Dane, the Dutch Belted, and the Devon. There are also dual-purpose breeds used to produce milk and meat, notably the Milking Shorthorn and the Red Polled.
The Ayrshire breed originated in Scotland. Animals of this breed are red and white or brown and white in colour, and they are strong, vigorous, and good foragers. Ayrshire milk contains about 4.1 percent butterfat. Switzerland is the native home of the Brown Swiss. These cows are silver to dark brown in colour, with a black nose and tongue. Brown Swiss are strong and vigorous. The average fat test of the milk is 4.1 percent. The Guernsey breed originated on Guernsey Island off the coast of France. The Guernsey is fawn-coloured with clear white markings. The milk averages about 4.8 percent fat and has a deep yellow colour. The Holstein–Friesian breed originated in the Netherlands. It is black and white in colour and large in size. Holsteins give more milk than any other breed; the average butterfat content is 3.7 percent. The Jersey breed originated on the isle of Jersey, in Great Britain. Jersey cows are fawn in colour, with or without white markings. They are the smallest of the major dairy breeds, but their milk is the richest, containing on the average 5.2 percent butterfat. The protein content of milk is highest for Guernsey (3.91 percent) and Jersey (3.92 percent) and lowest for Holstein (3.23 percent).
- Breeding and herd improvement
The breeds of dairy cattle have been established by years of careful selection and mating of animals to attain desired types. Increased milk and butterfat production has been the chief objective, although the objective often has shifted to increased milk and protein production. Production per cow varies with many environmental factors, but the genetic background of the cow is extremely important.
The principles of breeding to improve production have been helpful in increasing milk production in lesser developed countries. Progress has also been made in India with cows and water buffalo.
Artificial breeding has developed into a worldwide practice. Bulls with the genetic capacity to transmit high milk-producing ability to their female offspring are kept in studs. Dairy-farmer cooperatives usually operate the studs, with artificial insemination generally used. Semen for artificial insemination may be frozen for shipment to any part of the world.
- Feeding dairy cattle
The dairy cow is an efficient producer of human food from roughage. This ability is attributable to a unique digestive system that consists of a four-compartment stomach capable of handling roughages not digested by human beings and other monogastric (one-stomached) animals.
Pasture is the natural feed for dairy cattle, and an abundance of good pasture provides most of the requirements of a good dairy ration. An outstanding example of grassland dairying is found in New Zealand, where cows are on pasture all year and milk production costs are at a minimum. The farmer does not need to prepare and store feed for a long winter period. Feeding a balanced ration, however, rather than grass alone, increases milk production. By 2000 the average annual production per cow in New Zealand was 8,655 pounds (3,926 kilograms) of milk, while in the U.S., where supplemental feeding is common, it was 18,204 pounds, or 8,257 kilograms. Pastures of poor quality must be supplemented with other feed, such as green crops, summer silage, or hay.
During seasons when pastures are inadequate, cows need hay, silage, and grain in sufficient amounts and balance to supply nutrient needs, and to guarantee a nutritional reserve to keep milk volume and composition from declining.
- Disease prevention
Disease is one of the greatest problems of the dairy farm. It is a constant threat and may make removal of valuable animals from the herd necessary when they show even a possibility of disease. One study of removal of cows from a typical dairy herd showed that slightly more than one in five were removed yearly and about a third of these were lost. Good herd management includes cleanliness, isolation of sick or injured animals, keeping premises free of hazards that might cause injury, and continuous protection against poisonous plants and other material. Certain diseases, such as tuberculosis, require injections. Others, such as mastitis, require constant treatment. For some diseases there is no known cure; slaughter of the animal is the only way to stop spread of the infection. Foot and mouth disease is the most notorious of these; severe measures have been employed by most governments in order to exclude or control this disease.
Milking and bulk handling on the farm
The development of milk-producing tissue in the mammae is triggered by conception; minimal production begins in the seventh or eighth week, but secretion is inhibited until after calving. The stimulus of calving increases lactation for several weeks, until another conception prompts a gradual decline. In response to pregnancy hormones and the needs of the fetus, the animal is usually dry for the month or two preceding calving.
Milk is produced by the cow from her blood, and a large amount of food is necessary for maintenance of a high producing cow. The products of digestion and absorption enter the blood and are carried to the udder. There the raw materials are collected and changed into milk components. Each time the blood passes through the udder a small fraction of the components is removed to make the milk. Some 400 pounds (50 gallons, or about 200 litres) of blood must pass through the udder to make one pound (about 0.45 kilograms) of milk. A daily flow through the udder of 10 tons (20,000 pounds, or about 9,000 kilograms) of blood is required for a cow producing 50 pounds (22.5 kilograms) of milk per day. The energy required to produce milk components and to circulate the blood indicates the great importance of proper and abundant feed.
Today, most milking is done with machines by a carefully trained operator, usually twice a day, in stanchion barns or milking parlours. An experienced milker handles one to three machine units. The cows are first cleaned, and the teat cups put on. A pulsating vacuum draws the milk into a receiver or through piping into the farm milk tank.
Milk is an extremely perishable commodity that must be cooled to 50 °F (10 °C) or less within two hours. It then must be maintained at that temperature until it is delivered to the consumer.
Milk is transported from farm to plant in a variety of ways, depending on the part of the world. In the Gujarat region of India, the milk is carried to a receiving station in jars on the heads of women who do the milking. The receiving station transports the milk in large cans to the plant by truck.
In the major milk-producing countries of the world, the milk is held cold in the farm tank or in cans until it is picked up, usually once or twice daily, by tanker or truck. Tankers pump the milk in at the farm and out into plant tanks on delivery. The tanker driver measures and samples each farmer’s milk; fat and bacteria tests are run at the plant. The use of pipelines has been introduced on a small scale in some European countries for delivery of milk from farm to factory.
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