Guatemala City • Mixco • Villa Nueva • Petapa • San Juan Sacatepequez • Quetzaltenango • Villa Canales • Escuintla • Coatepeque • Chinautla • San Miguel Petapa • Chimaltenango • Chichicastenango • Huehuetenango • Amatitlan •
|THE GUATEMALA COAT OF ARMS|
Location of Guatemala within the continent of North America
Map of Guatemala
Flag Description of Guatemala:The flag of Guatemala was officially adopted on August 17, 1871. The blue and white are the original colors used by the United Provinces of Central America. The coat of arm (centered on white) was adopted in 1968 and features the quetzal bird, a symbol of liberty, perched on the Declaration of Independence
Official name República de Guatemala (Republic of Guatemala)
Form of government republic with one legislative house (Congress of the Republic )
Head of state and government President: Otto Pérez Molina
Capital Guatemala City
Official language Spanish
Official religion none
Monetary unit quetzal (Q)
Population (2013 est.) 15,528,000COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 42,042
Total area (sq km) 108,889
Urban-rural population Urban: (2011) 49.8%
Rural: (2011) 50.2%
Life expectancy at birth Male: (2012) 69.3 years
Female: (2012) 73.1 years
Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male: (2010) 80.6%
Female: (2010) 70.3%
GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2012) 3,120
The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees. In January 2012, Guatemala assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.
Guatemala, country of Central America. The dominance of an Indian culture within its interior uplands distinguishes Guatemala from its Central American neighbours. The origin of the name Guatemala is Indian, but its derivation and meaning are undetermined. Some hold that the original form was Quauhtemallan (indicating an Aztec rather than a Mayan origin), meaning “land of trees,” and others hold that it is derived from Guhatezmalha, meaning “mountain of vomiting water”— referring no doubt to such volcanic eruptions as the one that destroyed Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (modern-day Antigua Guatemala), the first permanent Spanish capital of the region’s captaincy general. The country’s contemporary capital, Guatemala City, is a major metropolitan centre; Quetzaltenango in the western highlands is the nucleus of the Indian population.
After gaining independence from Spain in the 1820s, Guatemala had a long history of government by authoritarian rule and military regimes until it came under democratic rule in 1985. Starting in 1954, Guatemala’s governments faced formidable guerrilla opposition that sparked civil war that lasted for 36 years until peace accords were signed in 1996. The struggles of Guatemala’s Indians during the war years were illuminated when Rigoberta Menchú, a Quiché Maya and an advocate for indigenous people throughout Latin America, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992.
A slow political and economic recovery continued into the early 21st century. Elections have been held regularly since 1996, but, because there are many political parties, which tend to be small and short-lived, convergence on political solutions has been rare. Fear of a military return to power has preoccupied voters in the first years of the 21st century.
Geography of Guatemala
Guatemala is bounded to the north and west by Mexico, to the northeast by Belize and (along a short coastline) by the Gulf of Honduras, to the east by Honduras, to the southeast by El Salvador, and to the south by the Pacific Ocean.
The surface of Guatemala is characterized by four major topographical features. Southern Guatemala is dominated by a string of 27 volcanoes extending for about 180 miles (300 km) between Mexico and El Salvador. Between the volcanoes and the Pacific Ocean lies a fertile plain ranging 25–30 miles (40–50 km) in width. The Petén region, a large, low-lying, rectangular area, juts northward to occupy a portion of the Yucatán Peninsula, a limestone platform shared with Mexico and Belize. Sandwiched between the volcanic landscape and the Petén are the high mountain ranges and valleys. These arc gently eastward from Mexico for a distance of 210 miles (340 km), extending into northern Honduras.
The volcanic region of Guatemala consists of three elements: a row of volcanoes of geologically recent origin, flanked by a deeply eroded volcanic tableland of older origin to the north and the narrow coastal plain constructed of volcanic debris on the Pacific slope. The alignment of volcanic cones begins with the Tacaná Volcano (13,428 feet [4,093 metres]), located on the frontier with Mexico, and continues eastward across Guatemala into El Salvador. Among these are three continuously active volcanoes: the growing summit of Santiaguito (8,202 feet [2,500 metres]) located on the southern flanks of Santa María (12,375 feet [3,772 metres]); Fuego (12,582 feet [3,835 metres]); and Pacaya (8,371 feet [2,552 metres]). The highest peak is Tajumulco (13,845 feet [4,220 metres]). The city of Antigua Guatemala is precariously situated beneath three volcanoes: Agua Volcano (12,350 feet [3,760 metres]), Fuego Volcano (12,336 feet [3,763 metres]), and Acatenango Volcano (13,045 feet [3,976 metres]). Lava flow from Pacaya is sometimes visible from Guatemala City.
From the base of the volcanic row, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet (450 metres), the Pacific coastal plain gradually slopes south to sea level at the shoreline of the ocean. The plain extends east-west for a distance of about 150 miles (240 km) and is one of the country’s richest agricultural areas. Three-fourths of the population and most of the major cities are concentrated in the volcanic region and the Pacific slope, and the volcanic eruptions and earthquakes characteristic of this area have repeatedly taken a heavy toll of property and life.
The rugged and deeply dissected volcanic highlands, which lie to the north of the volcanic row, average 9,000 feet (2,750 metres) in elevation near the Mexican border and decline gradually to 3,000 feet (900 metres) at the opposite border with El Salvador. Ash-filled basins and scenic lakes are scattered throughout this region.
The sierras provide a major barrier between the heavily occupied volcanic landscape to the south and the sparsely populated Petén to the north. Sierra los Cuchumatanes to the west rises to elevations in excess of 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). Eastward, the lower sierras of Chamá, Santa Cruz, Chuacús, Las Minas, and the Montañas del Mico are separated by deep valleys that open eastward on a narrow Caribbean shoreline.
The Petén, lying largely below 1,000 feet (300 metres) in elevation, exhibits a knobby or hilly surface characterized by subsurface drainage of water. The region is replete with scattered lakes, Lake Petén Itzá being the largest. Extensive flooding takes place during the rainy season.
The east-flowing Motagua River and west-flowing Cuilco pass in opposite directions through a structural trough that serves as the boundary between the volcanic terrain of southern Guatemala and the sierras of its midsection. The sierra region is drained by large rivers that flow primarily north into the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Usumacinta River. The 250-mile- (400-km-) long Motagua River is the longest of a series of rivers draining eastward toward the Caribbean. Several small rivers drain into the Pacific Ocean. Much of the Petén region is drained by the subsurface flow of water.
The volcanic belt of southern Guatemala contains some of the most productive soils; nevertheless, the northernmost sector of this region is particularly subject to erosion induced by the prevalence of steep slopes and deforestation. Within the sierra region, heavier rainfall—combined with centuries of cultivation of the thinner soils on the steep slopes and the wanton destruction of forests—has led to widespread erosion there too. The limestone surface of the Petén produces shallow and stony soils that are difficult to farm.
Located within the tropics and with elevations ranging between sea level and more than 13,000 feet (4,000 metres), Guatemala experiences a diversity of climates. Below 3,000 feet (900 metres) in elevation, average monthly temperatures range between 70 and 80 °F (21 and 27 °C) throughout the year; between 3,000 and 5,000 feet (900 and 1,500 metres), temperatures range between 60 and 70 °F (16 and 21 °C); and from 6,000 to 9,000 feet (1,500 to 2,700 metres), they range between 50 and 60 °F (10 and 16 °C). Above 9,000 feet, temperatures are marginal for crops, but the grazing of animals is possible.
Near-desert conditions prevail in the middle section of the Motagua River valley, whereas precipitation in excess of 150 inches (3,800 mm) occurs at higher elevations of the Pacific-facing volcanic row and on the north- and east-facing slopes of the sierras. In general, a dry season prevails between November and April; however, moisture-laden trade winds from the Caribbean yield rainfall throughout the year on north- and east-facing slopes. An average of 40 to 80 inches (1,000 to 2,000 mm) of precipitation is received in southern and eastern Guatemala, but this is doubled in areas located nearer the Caribbean shoreline.
Severe tropical storms, especially during the months of September and October, often deluge the country with damaging floods. Strong winds accompanying these storms, as well as winter invasions of cold air, occasionally place crops at risk. Hurricane Mitch, one of the deadliest tropical cyclones ever in the Atlantic Ocean, which brutally struck nearby Honduras and Nicaragua in October 1998, also caused extensive damage in Guatemala, displacing nearly 100,000 people.
Plant and animal life
In the Petén, a dense rainforest is interspersed with patches of savanna grasslands. The sierras are forested with oak and pine. In the volcanic highlands, stands of pine, fir, and oak have been largely destroyed except on the highest slopes. On the Pacific coastal plain, the landscape largely has been cleared of its tropical forest and savanna.
The richest variety of animal life inhabits the lowland forest areas, although some species, such as deer, monkeys, peccaries, tapirs, ocelots, and jaguars, are increasingly rare. Among the reptiles of note are numerous snake species, crocodiles, and iguanas. The birdlife of the rainforests is particularly exuberant and includes the radiantly plumaged quetzal (Pharomachrus), the national bird, for which a reserve has been set aside in the sierras near Cobán.
Demography of Guatemala
- Ethnic groups
On the basis of cultural traits, the population is divided into two main ethnic groups—Ladinos and Maya, who make up the vast majority of Indians in Guatemala and form several cultures. The Ladinos comprise those of mixed Hispanic-Maya origin and make up between one-half and three-fifths of the total population, whereas the Maya account for some two-fifths of the country’s population. There are much smaller numbers of Spanish-speaking Xinka in southern Guatemala and Garífuna (people of mixed African and Caribbean descent; formerly called Black Caribs) in the northeastern port towns of Livingston and Puerto Barrios. Their ancestors immigrated to the Central American coast from Caribbean islands in the 18th century. Ladinos, who speak Spanish exclusively, are the more commercially and politically influential group, and they make up most of the urban population.
Although all official transactions in Guatemala are conducted in Spanish, many documents—such as those related to the peace agreement of December 1996 that ended more than three decades of civil war in Guatemala—are translated into more than 20 Mayan languages. The largest Maya groups are the Mam, who reside in the western regions of Guatemala; the K’iche’, who occupy areas to the north and west of Lake Atitlán; the Kaqchikel, who extend from the eastern shores of Lake Atitlán to Guatemala City; and the Q’eqchi’, who are concentrated in the sierras to the north and west of Lake Izabal. Although many Maya are bilingual in Spanish, there has been a strong commitment since the late 20th century to assert Maya ethnic identity and to promote the various Maya languages for both daily use and literature.
While Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion of Guatemalans, among the Maya it is often heavily infused with beliefs of pre-Columbian origin. From the mid-20th century, however, there has been a surge of conversions to Evangelical Protestantism (which offers strong encouragement of self-improvement), particularly among the poor. Protestants account for about two-fifths of the population, one of the highest proportions in Latin America. The most important Roman Catholic shrine in Central America is the Black Christ of Esquipulas (1595), located in eastern Guatemala and carved by Quirio Cataño of Antigua Guatemala.
- Settlement patterns
Approximately three-fifths of the population of Guatemala is concentrated within the volcanic uplands and adjacent Pacific coastal plain to the south and west of Guatemala City. A little more than one-tenth live to the east and south, while even fewer reside within the Petén region. The remaining populace resides in the region of the sierras. Of the urban dwellers who make up some two-fifths of the population, nearly half inhabit the metropolitan area of Guatemala City.
Quetzaltenango, the country’s fourth most populous city and the most important city of the western highlands, is the nucleus of a large K’iche’-speaking Mayan population. Numbering approximately 1.3 million, the K’iche’ are the largest of the 20-some Mayan groups. A line of cities follows along at the juncture between the upper Pacific coastal plain and the line of volcanoes. The largest of these cities are Retalhuleu, Mazatenango, and Escuintla. Zacapa in the east, Cobán in the north, and Huehuetenango (the heartland of the Mam Maya) in the west are the major urban centres in the sierras. Puerto de San José is an important Pacific port, and Santo Tomás de Castilla on the Caribbean is Guatemala’s busiest port, handling chiefly general cargo and serving as the headquarters of the Guatemalan navy.
- Demographic trends
Guatemala has a relatively high rate of annual population growth. The birth, death, infant mortality, and fertility rates are among the highest in Central America, and life expectancy is low. Thousands of the rural poor in search of a livelihood migrate seasonally to the Pacific coastal plain to harvest crops or to the major urban centres.
During the civil war, many refugees fled to sparsely populated areas in the Petén region to the north. In the early 21st century, some 250,000 Guatemalans were still internally displaced. Others fled to Mexico, where more than 100 refugee camps existed in the 1980s, and to the United States and Belize. Many of these refugees returned home with the help of a United Nations refugee commission, which functioned until 2004; however, the number of Guatemalans emigrating continued to rise into the 21st century.
Economy of Guatemala
Guatemala is a less-developed country largely dependent upon traditional commercial crops such as coffee, sugar, and bananas as the basis of its market economy. Vigorous economic growth during the 1960s and ’70s was followed, as in most of Latin America, by national indebtedness and low or negative economic growth rates in the 1980s. While the return of nominal civilian control in the late 1980s helped to improve foreign investment, tourism, and the economy in general, negative trade balances and foreign indebtedness continued to hamper the economy. The government has attempted to revitalize the economy by fostering the diversification and expansion of nontraditional exports such as cut flowers and snow peas, and free trade zones and assembly plants have been established to encourage the expansion and decentralization of manufacturing. By the beginning of the 21st century, more than half of the citizenry lived below the poverty line. Remittances from Guatemalans living abroad accounted for a larger source of foreign income than exports and tourism combined.
- Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Although agriculture provides employment for about two-fifths of the workforce, it contributes less than one-fourth of the gross national product (GNP). Traditional peasant agriculture, focused upon the production of corn (maize), beans, and squash for domestic consumption, is concentrated on small farms or milpas (temporary forest clearings) in the highlands, but production of these staples has lagged behind population growth. In contrast, commercial plantation agriculture, emphasizing the production of coffee, cotton, sugarcane, bananas, and cattle for foreign markets, is restricted to large estates on the Pacific piedmont and coastal plain and in the lower Motagua valley.
The agricultural resources of Guatemala are rich. Although rugged landscapes prevail in much of the volcanic region, numerous highland basins and the Pacific piedmont and coastal plain provide productive soils for agriculture. Within the sierras, the lower Motagua valley offers excellent soils. The wide range of climates allows for a diversity of crops. The efficient exploitation of soils is primarily limited by the inequitable distribution of land (large landowners not being required to maximize land use) and by the inability to provide the agricultural sector with adequate financial support—i.e., funding of small farms.
Guatemala has developed into a major world supplier of cardamom. Increasingly, peasants who have long produced grains and beans and tended sheep are turning to the production of nontraditional commodities—fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants—destined for export and for rapidly growing urban markets within the country. Nontraditional exports have continued to grow in the 21st century, but evidence suggests that this trend may be short-lived. Following the end of the civil war in 1996, many small farmers returning to Guatemala discovered that organic products such as coffee, cacao (the source of cocoa beans), and spices command higher prices as export items than traditional agricultural products.
Both forest and fishing resources have considerable potential. Forest products are derived primarily from the tropical forests of the Petén and the coniferous forests of the highlands. Limited accessibility, however, hinders the exploitation of forest resources. Lumber, primarily pine, is exported in small volume and used domestically in construction and the crafting of furniture. But the most important use of timber is for fuel, with the overwhelming majority of it going to that purpose. Commercial fishing in the Pacific has developed and includes a catch of crustaceans, especially shrimp, and such fish as tuna, snapper, and mackerel; most of the catch is exported.
- Resources and power
Many have long believed that Guatemala lacks the traditional mineral resources (coal, iron, and other metals) to establish an industrial economy. Nevertheless, the extraction of petroleum in the Petén since the early 1980s has alleviated some of Guatemala’s power needs and provided additional exports, though the reserves in that region are becoming increasingly depleted. At the beginning of the 21st century, Guatemala had proven deposits of a number of minerals, including nickel, which had once been an export product, but mining in the country was focused on antimony, iron ore, lead, and gold. An increasing number of open-pit mines to extract gold and silver deposits have been established in the western and northeastern regions of the country. The creation of these mines has sparked criticism and protests from neighbouring indigenous communities and international human rights groups, in some cases necessitating military intervention.
The primary sources of energy are petroleum, hydroelectricity, and fuelwood. Fossil fuels and hydroelectricity both contribute substantially to the country’s electricity requirements. Throughout the more densely populated regions, wooded areas provide firewood and charcoal for cooking, heating, the firing of ceramic ware, and the production of lime. In 1996 Guatemala became part of the System of Electric Interconnection for Central America (Sistema de Interconexion Electrica para America Central; SIEPAC), which connects the region’s power-transmission grids, allowing electricity to be traded between the participating countries. The next year Guatemala began privatizing much of its energy sector.
Manufacturing grew rapidly between 1960 and 1980 but expanded more slowly thereafter. Guatemala lost markets to Asian manufacturers, particularly in the garment industry. Food processing and beverage production, the processing of tobacco and sugar, publishing, the manufacture of textiles, clothing, cement, tires, construction materials, and pharmaceuticals, and the refining of petroleum are primary industrial activities. Like other Central American countries, Guatemala has encouraged the establishment of maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble garments for export. Most of the workers in these plants are women. Industrial activity is heavily concentrated in the environs of Guatemala City.
The government-controlled Bank of Guatemala is the note-issuing authority and oversees the country’s banking system. It also handles all international accounts. A number of other public and private banks are in operation, and a stock exchange was established in Guatemala City in 1987. Guatemala’s monetary unit is the quetzal. In 2001 the U.S. dollar was adopted as legal tender along with the quetzal.
The United States is Guatemala’s primary trading partner in both imports and exports. Other trading partners include El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. In 1960 Guatemala joined in the founding of the Central American Common Market (CACM), which fostered trade between Central American countries but was only moderately successful in stimulating intra-isthmian trade. CACM suspended its activities in the mid-1980s but renewed its efforts in the 1990s. By 1993 El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua had ratified a new Central American Free Trade Zone (later signed by Costa Rica) to reduce intraregional trade tariffs gradually over a period of several years, though implementation was subsequently delayed until the realization of SIEPAC in 1996.
In 2004 Guatemala ratified a new Central America Free Trade Agreement with the United States. Implementation of the agreement divided Guatemalans: peasant, labour, and indigenous groups staunchly opposed it, while businesses and the government believed it would attract more foreign investment and promote economic growth.
Imports include mineral fuels, electrical machinery, transport equipment, pharmaceutical and other chemical products, textiles, and food. The major exports are chemical products and coffee, followed by sugar, bananas, crude petroleum, and cardamom. The exports of vegetables, fresh fruits, cut flowers, and seafoods are of increasing importance.
The growing service sector is the largest contributor to Guatemala’s GNP. Increasing emphasis is being placed upon tourism as a source of income and employment. Noteworthy archaeological ruins are located at Tikal in the Petén, Zacaleu on the outskirts of Huehuetenango, and Quiriguá in the lower Motagua valley. Flores, located on an island in Lake Petén Itzá, is the point of departure for visits to Tikal National Park, which was designated a World Heritage site in 1979. Antigua Guatemala (also made a World Heritage site in 1979), the old colonial capital, has a wealth of ruins and “earthquake baroque” architecture. It has been revived as a tourist and cultural centre with a thriving industry of language schools, museums, bookstores, craft shops, and facilities for visitors. Volcanic landscapes and mountain valleys provide incomparable settings for villages occupied by colourfully attired Indians. Of particular renown is the marketplace in the town of Chichicastenango. The Caribbean coast, where the surf is gentler than on Guatemala’s Pacific shore, is popular with tourists interested in water sports, and Playa de Escobar, near the port of Puerto Barrios, is a favourite destination.
- Labour and taxation
Nearly two-fifths of Guatemala’s labour force is engaged in agriculture, with roughly the same proportion employed in the service sector and about one-fifth working in manufacturing and construction. More women entered the labour force in the 1990s, particularly women from poor households. The high rate of urbanization was one of the factors that led to the increase. Although the number of women in the labour force increased by one-fifth by the end of the 20th century, women still constituted less than one-fourth of the official workforce (this figure does not include unreported activities such as subsistence farming and domestic work).
Labour unions and student and peasant organizations made significant progress in the 1944–54 period, but these gains were largely lost in the subsequent period of rigorous military control. Labour union members have been harassed, intimidated, and killed in significant numbers since 1954. Their situation has slowly improved since the 1990s, but many cases of continued abuse have been documented in the early years of the 21st century.
The government continues to rely primarily upon revenue from customs duties. Other tax sources, such as sales taxes, personal income taxes, and excises on liquor and tobacco supplement customs receipts.
- Transportation and telecommunications
A network of highways, concentrated in the southern portion of the country, is the major means of transport. The railroad from central Guatemala to the Caribbean ports used to carry more bananas than people, but it has largely been replaced by truck transport for freight and by bus for passengers. Commercial domestic flights within the country are basically limited to those between Guatemala City and the Petén.
Two primary highways extend east-west across Guatemala. The Inter-American Highway, part of the Pan-American Highway, lies to the north of the southern chain of volcanoes. A Pacific coast highway lies to the south. These routes are linked by a number of roads that pass through the chain. The Pacific coastal plain is served by a number of paved highways that extend south from the primary coast highway. The primary north-south highway extends from San José on the Pacific to Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic, by way of Guatemala City. By far a greater number of passengers are carried by bus rather than by private automobiles.
The primary Pacific coast highway and the north-south interoceanic highway are paralleled by the nationally owned railroad. At Zacapa a rail line branches southeast to El Salvador.
Most of the foreign trade is handled through the Caribbean port of Santo Tomás de Castilla. Pacific port facilities (Puerto Quetzal) are in operation at San José.
La Aurora International Airport, located on the southern outskirts of Guatemala City, serves points throughout the Western Hemisphere and Europe. The privately operated national airline is Aviateca.
Guatemala is Central America’s largest telecommunications market. Because of the country’s inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, especially in rural areas, mobile phones have been the fastest growing sector. The telecommunications industry was liberalized in 1996.
Government and Society of Guatemala
- Constitutional framework
The constitution adopted in 1986 defines the country as a sovereign democratic republic and divides power among three governmental branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Legislative power is delegated to a unicameral Congress, whose members are elected to five-year terms through direct, popular suffrage. Executive power is vested in the president, who is both the head of government and the head of state, and the vice president, both of whom are also elected to five-year terms by popular vote.
- Local government
Guatemala is divided into departamentos (departments), each headed by a governor appointed by the president. The departments in turn are divided into municipios (municipalities), which are governed by councils presided over by mayors, elected directly by popular ballot.
The Supreme Court, with at least nine justices, has jurisdiction over all the tribunals of the country. The justices are elected by Congress for terms of four years.
- Political process
All citizens over age 18 are obliged to register to vote and to participate in elections, however compulsory voting is not enforced and there are no sanctions in Guatemala. Broad guarantees are provided for the organization and functioning of political parties, except for the Communist Party and any other that is deemed to be dedicated to the overthrow of the democratic process. Only authorized political parties may nominate candidates for president, vice president, and Congress. Candidates for mayor and other municipal offices need not be nominated by political parties.
Following the Peace Accords of 1996, various guerrilla groups agreed to lay down their arms and enter the political process. Women also began to increasingly participate in government-sponsored programs. Organized women’s groups began to emerge, and the recognition of women as a driving political force in Guatemalan society owed much to the support of international organizations. Women’s roles in documenting the disappearance and killing of citizens during and after the civil war tended to strengthen their collective voice. Moreover, women who had spent time in refugee camps during Guatemala’s violent periods often returned home with a greater sense of empowerment and self-esteem; many became literate and had the opportunity to share their skills and experiences with other Guatemalan women who had not been in exile. Finally, another likely influence on the emergence of women as a political force was the prominence of Indian-rights activist and Nobel Prize winner Rigoberta Menchú.
There is a constant flux in the formation and demise of political parties. Those displaying the most continuity are the Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario; PR), which has shifted from left to right in political orientation, the centrist Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party (Partido Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca; PDCG), and the right-wing National Liberation Movement (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional; MLN). In the slightly more open political atmosphere of the 1990s, several new parties emerged as contenders: the National Center Union (Unión Central Nacional; UCN), the Solidarity Action Movement (Movimiento de Acción Solidaria; MAS), the neoliberal National Advancement Party (Partido de Avanzada Nacional; PAN), and the National Alliance (Alianza National; AN). Notable parties that formed in the early 21st century include the National Union for Hope (Unión Nacional de Esperanza; UNE), the Patriotic Party (Partido Patriota; PP), the Grand National Alliance (Gran Alianza Nacional; GANA), and the Centre of Social Action (Centro de Acción Social; CASA), which represents the interests of indigenous people. Generally, Guatemalan voters still appear to have little faith in government because of its poor record in improving security and its inability to stop violent crime.
Guatemala has an army, navy (including marines), and air force. Male citizens between ages 18 and 50 are liable for conscription, with the military service obligation varying from 12 to 24 months. Although constitutionally outside of politics, the army nevertheless represents a powerful element in political struggles and has often controlled the government.
- Health and welfare
The inadequacy of Guatemalan medical and health services, particularly in rural areas, is reflected in the high rates of intestinal diseases and infant mortality. Inadequate sanitation and malnutrition are contributory factors. In larger communities the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance maintains hospitals that provide free care, and there are also numerous private hospitals. During the 1980s, rural health centres staffed by personnel trained in preventive medicine were established in hundreds of localities in an effort to improve the health of rural inhabitants. Though these centres have shown slow but continued improvement in the quality of care, the majority of rural dwellers still lack access to medical services, and about half of them have an inadequate diet.
Since 1946 the Guatemalan Social Security Institute has provided medical insurance for public and private employees. The benefits cover accidents and common illness, as well as maternity care. The institute also maintains several hospitals.
Rural settlements tend to radiate around the cabeceras (county seats) of the hundreds of municipios (municipalities) into which the country is divided. The living conditions in the vast majority of these settlements contrast sharply with the modern amenities of Guatemala City. Running water and up-to-date sanitary facilities are lacking in most homes. Dwellings tend to be made of adobe, cane, or planks and be roofed with thatch, tiles, shakes, or corrugated metal. Homes commonly have earthen floors.
In theory, education is free, secular, and compulsory through the primary school. Secondary schools train teachers, agricultural experts, industrial technicians, and candidates for universities. An enrollment of about two-thirds of those eligible to attend primary schools declines to less than one-fifth for secondary schools. The adult literacy rate (slightly less than three-fourths) is one of the lowest in Central America. In rural areas, even many of those who have attended primary schools (usually only to the third grade) are functionally illiterate as adults. Impoverishment and a low premium paid upon education contribute to these low literacy levels.
Guatemala’s universities are concentrated in the capital. The largest is the national University of San Carlos, founded in 1676. Other universities of Guatemala include Del Valle (1966), Francisco Marroquín (1971), Galileo (2000), Mariano Gálvez (1966), and Rafael Landívar (1961). There are also specialized schools in art and music.
Culture Life of Guatemala
- Cultural milieu
Guatemalan society is marked by pronounced extremes in the conduct of daily life. In Guatemala City, elite families live much as they do in the cosmopolitan centres of developed countries, communicating by e-mail, cell phones, and beepers. On the other hand, within an hour’s drive of the capital are indigenous people whose patterns of daily life reflect those of past centuries and whose communities continue to be knit together by market life. Sharp contrasts like these pervade Guatemalan culture, whether it be in the language spoken or in matters pertaining to the household, cuisine, attire, or family affairs.
- Daily life and social customs
Guatemalans are increasingly exposed to the intrusion of foreign influences upon their way of life. All aspects of communication—periodical news, the comics, soap operas, film—are primarily of foreign origin. A multitude of products, from soaps and boxed cereals and bottled drinks to automobiles, bear foreign brand names. Nevertheless, in local Mayan villages, colourful native attire is still common and varies according to the village and language group.
Heavily attended fairs and religious festivals are scheduled in every part of Guatemala throughout the year. Semana Santa (Holy Week), at Easter, is marked by festivals throughout the country, but many Guatemalans travel to Antigua Guatemala to attend services at its great Baroque cathedral. Guatemala’s national day of independence from Spain, September 15, is also celebrated across the country with fireworks, dances, parades, football (soccer) matches, and cockfights. At these festivals, indigenous crafts are sold, including the embroidered huipils (smocks) worn by Maya women. Guatemalans celebrate All Saints’ Day on November 1 with unique traditions: giant kites are flown in the cemeteries near Antigua Guatemala, and many Guatemalans feast on a traditional food known as fiambre, a salad made from cold cuts, fish, and vegetables. The town of Todos Santos Cuchumatán holds horse races and traditional dancing on this day. Guatemala City celebrates the Feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary on August 15. Weekly market days in Indian villages are important social gatherings; one of the best known is the market in Chichicastenango.
The basic food of the Maya consisted of corn, beans, squash, and, depending on the region, cassava (manioc), papaya, and plantains. Fishing and hunting also added to their diet. The beans of the cacao plant provided a cocoa drink that was primarily limited to the nobility. Modern-day Guatemalan cuisine is a mixture of Spanish and local dishes. These include appetizers such as tamales de elote (corn cakes) and turkey soup; drinks made with rum, lime juice, and sugarcane and horchata (cold milk mixed with rice, cocoa, and cinnamon); and entrées such as chiles rellenos (stuffed peppers), rellenitos de plátano (mashed plantain with black beans), salpicón (chopped beef salad with cilantro and onions), arroz con pollo (rice with chicken), and Mayan chicken fricassee (chicken cooked in a pumpkin and sesame seed sauce with chopped almonds). Desserts include pompan (candied sweet papaya) and flan.
- The arts
The evidence of Maya culture pervades the country. Today, although native crafts involve a variety of forms of expression, they are best represented in colourful handwoven textiles and costumes, unique to each community. Traditional dances, music, and religious rites that have survived in the more rural regions are important tourist attractions. The art of the colonial period is chiefly represented in the architecture and decor of Roman Catholic churches.
For the most part, the recognition of modern painters, composers, and authors tends to be limited. A major exception is the writer Miguel Ángel Asturias (1899–1974), a poet and novelist who won the Lenin Peace Prize in 1966 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967. Despite his 10-year residence in Paris (1923–33), his work is strongly rooted in Guatemalan history, such as his 1946 novel El señor presidente, a powerful attack on Guatemala’s military dictatorship. As with Asturias’s writings, expressions of the various art forms in Guatemala tend to focus on Maya heritage. From antiquity is the epic Popol Vuh, a historical chronicle of the Quiché people. Originally written in hieroglyphics, the story was translated into Spanish in the 16th century and is viewed as one of the most important documents of the pre-Columbian Americas. Indian-rights activist Rigoberta Menchú is also internationally renowned for her poetry and short fiction, but more so for her memoir I, Rigoberta Menchú, first published in 1983 and since translated into many languages. Carlos Mérida (1891–1984), a contemporary and colleague of the great Mexican muralist Diego Rivera, is the best-known Guatemalan painter. The painter and printmaker Alfred Jensen (1903–81), of Danish, Polish, and German descent, was born in Guatemala but settled in the United States in 1934.
- Cultural institutions
Most of the more highly recognized centres of cultural activity are concentrated within Guatemala City. These include the National Theatre, the Conservatory of Music, the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Arts, the Ixchel Museum of Indian Attire, a museum of natural history, and the National Museums of Archaeology and Ethnology and of Arts and Popular Crafts. The National Archives have a rich collection of materials on colonial Central America and on the Central American republics except for Panama. The Society of Geography and History ranks as one of the oldest and most highly respected learned societies in Guatemala. Visitors are attracted not only to the variety of museums but also to the Palace of the Captain’s General, the Casa Popenoe (a restored colonial mansion), and numerous convents and churches.
In recent years a number of foreign universities have established programs in Antigua Guatemala, and many language institutes also have taken up residence there, resulting in scholarly conventions, bookstores, book fairs, and greater cultural activity. Since 1978 the Center for Mesoamerican Research, which is headquartered in Antigua Guatemala, has sponsored interdisciplinary research on Central America.
- Sports and recreation
Football (soccer) is Guatemala’s most popular sport. The national team competes internationally, and Guatemalan players figure prominently in clubs in other national leagues, especially those of Mexico and Uruguay.
In 1950 Guatemala hosted the Central American and Caribbean Games, a quadrennial competition organized in 1924 in which Guatemalan athletes have participated since the games were first held in 1926. The country also competes in the quadrennial Pan American Games and participated in its first Olympic Summer Games in 1952 in Helsinki.
Outdoor sports are main recreational activities. The most popular are white-water rafting near Acatenango Volcano, kayaking on inland Lake Atitlán and along the Pacific coast, spelunking in the limestone labyrinths of the Petén plateau, and volcano climbing and mountain biking in the sierras above Antigua Guatemala. Snorkeling, deep-sea fishing, scuba diving, and surfing are also popular recreations among visitors to the Caribbean coast. In larger communities throughout the country, recreational parks draw crowds on weekends.
- Media and publishing
Major newspapers and publishing houses, as well as radio and television stations, are located within the capital. Among the most widely circulated newspapers are La Prensa Libre (“The Free Press”), El Gráfico (“The Graphic”), La Hora (“The Hour”), and Siglo Veintiuno (“21st Century”). Siglo News is an English-language newspaper, a companion to Siglo Veintiuno. Diario de Centroamérica (“Central America Daily”) is published by the government. Radio and television have assumed a major role in reaching large numbers who are illiterate or who reside in remote areas of the country. All means of communication are ostensibly free of government censorship. Censorship has been imposed in times of crisis, however, and intimidation and threats of physical harm have often hindered the free expression of thought.
History of Guatemala
Maya [Credit: Contunico © ZDF Enterprises GmbH, Mainz]The ancient Maya were one of the most highly developed peoples of precolonial America, boasting a sophisticated calendar, astronomic observatories, and construction skills. During the Classic Period dating from 300 to 900 ce, the Maya built the majority of their cities. The causes of the sudden abandonment of many Mayan cities starting about 850 ce are still being debated, but a combination of soil exhaustion, climate change, and armed conflict may have contributed to the cities’ decline. When Spanish conquerors arrived in the 16th century, they found many cities in ruins and encountered little organized resistance. Still, isolated bands of Maya-speaking peoples avoided Spanish control for many years in the colonial period.
The colonial period Under the Spanish, a capital was reestablished at the nearby location of present-day Antigua Guatemala. The capital achieved a certain magnificence, and the other major towns acquired some aspects of Spanish culture, but the outlying areas were only lightly affected. When the capital was razed by a series of earthquakes in 1773, it was moved by royal order to the present site of Guatemala City.
Compared with colonial Mexico or Peru, both of which had large deposits of precious metals, colonial Guatemala developed no great degree of economic prosperity. The cultivation for export of agricultural staples, principally cacao (the source of cocoa beans) and indigo, by Indian or African slave labour was the major economic activity, exclusive of production for subsistence. Toward the end of the colonial period, the production of cochineal, a red dye derived from the bodies of insects, competed with the other agricultural exports. Industrial products from England, despite the efforts of Spanish authorities to exclude them, came to Guatemala via the Caribbean and Belize. Commerce, however, was never extensive; a satisfactory port was never developed, internal transportation was difficult, and pirates harassed the coasts and preyed on shipping. The importance of Guatemala City lay in the fact that it was the administrative and religious centre of the entire region between Mexico and Panama, being the headquarters of the captain general, the high court (Audiencia), and the archbishop. The modern states of El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Chiapas, Mexico, were provinces under Guatemala’s jurisdiction in colonial times.
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