|THE GUAM COAT OF ARMS|
Location of Guam within the continent of Oceania
Map of Guam
Flag Description of Guam:The flag of Guam was designed on the island, and officially adopted in 1917. As a territory of the United States it features traditional U.S. colors, along with a symbolic seal that includes a swaying palm tree, sand, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean.
Official name Guåhan (Chamorro); Territory of Guam (English)
Political status self-governing, organized, unincorporated territory of the United States with one legislative house (Guam Legislature )
Head of state President of the United States: Barack Obama
Head of government Governor: Eddie Calvo
Capital Hagåtña (formerly Agana)
Official languages Chamorro; English
Official religion none
Monetary unit United States dollar (U.S.$)
Population (2013 est.) 161,000COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 217
Total area (sq km) 561
Urban-rural population Urban: (2011) 93.4%
Rural: (2011) 6.6%
Life expectancy at birth Male: (2012) 75.7 years
Female: (2012) 81.7 years
Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male: 100%
GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2009) 24,446
Spain ceded Guam to the US in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installation on the island is one of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific.
Also Guam, island and unincorporated territory of the United States in the north Pacific Ocean, the largest, most populous, and southernmost of the Mariana Islands. It lies about 5,800 miles (9,300 km) west of San Francisco and 1,600 miles (2,600 km) east of Manila. Hagåtña (Agana) is the capital. Major settlements are Dededo, in the north-central part of the island, Machanao, in the north, and Apotgan, on the west coast.
Geography of Guam
The island is sharply divided into a northern limestone plateau with a general elevation of about 500 feet (150 metres) and a higher area of volcanic hills to the south. The plateau is covered with a thick growth of jungle; the volcanic hills support mainly sword grass. The hills rise to an elevation of more than 1,000 feet (300 metres); their lower slopes to the east (and also, in part, to the west) are covered with younger limestones, generally similar to those of the northern limestone plateau. The island rises to 1,332 feet (406 metres) at Mount Lamlam, the highest point. Other major hills are Mount Bolanos (1,207 feet [368 metres]) and Mount Sasalaguan (1,086 feet [331 metres]).
Guam has a pleasant tropical climate tempered by the northeast trade winds and the north equatorial ocean current that flows west across the Pacific. Temperatures range between approximately 70 and 90 °F (20 and 30 °C) and are fairly even throughout the year. Average annual precipitation is about 95 inches (2,400 mm), three-fourths of which falls in storms during the wet season, generally starting in May or June and lasting through November. The evenness of the climate is punctuated by destructive typhoons (tropical cyclones) that occur at irregular intervals.
Palm trees, ferns, and other tropical plants abound. Many types of marine life and insects are also found. However, as a result of the accidental introduction in the 1940s of the brown tree snake, an invasive species from New Guinea, indigenous bird life on Guam has been devastated. At least a dozen bird species have become extinct, and several more are endangered. The abundant snakes have also caused numerous power outages by climbing poles and wires and crawling into transmission equipment, and they have killed small mammals.
Demography of Guam
Native Guamanians, ethnically called Chamorros, are of basically Malayo-Indonesian descent with a considerable admixture of Spanish, Filipino, Mexican, and other European and Asian ancestries. Chamorros and other Micronesians constitute about half the population. Nearly one-third of the people are Asians, notably Filipinos and Koreans, and there is a small minority of people of European ancestry. About three-fourths of the people are Roman Catholic, and one-eighth are Protestant.
The Chamorro language is an Austronesian language that has, over time, come to incorporate many Spanish words. The word Chamorro is derived from Chamorri, or Chamoli, meaning “noble.” English and Chamorro are the official languages; although Chamorro is still used in many homes, English is the language of education and commerce. Because of the number of tourists and investors from Japan, Japanese is increasingly also used.
The island’s rate of natural increase, although about average for the region, is high compared with that of the United States, partly because of a low death rate. There are large numbers of migrants from the Philippines and South Korea, as well as from neighbouring states such as the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Economy of Guam
The development of Guam into an important U.S. military base brought about profound changes in the island’s agricultural patterns after World War II. Foodstuffs were imported in increasing amounts at the expense of local cultivation, and Guam now imports most of its food.
The U.S. armed forces are represented at multiple military facilities on Guam. Andersen Air Force Base and its annexes are concentrated at the northern end of the island. U.S. Navy facilities, located around the island, include a naval air station, a naval base with a ship repair yard, communications centres, and a hospital. Work at the military facilities has drawn many islanders away from their former lives of subsistence agriculture and fishing.
Tourism is the most prominent component of the economy, with more than a million visitors arriving per year. There are several luxury hotels along Tumon Bay, which has been highly developed as a tourist area. An international airport links Guam with other Pacific islands, Asia, and Hawaii and the continental United States.
Poultry farming, garment-finishing plants, and oil refining are important earners. Guam is a duty-free port, and this status has attracted a number of small manufacturing companies from countries in Asia and has also prompted some immigration. Major imports—mostly from the United States and Japan—include food products, motor vehicles and parts, and shoes and other leather products. The leading exports are motor vehicles and parts, fish and other food products, scrap metal, and tobacco products. Finland, Japan, and the Federated States of Micronesia are the main export destinations.
Government and Society of Guam
Guam is an unincorporated territory of the United States governed under the Organic Act of Guam, passed by the U.S. Congress and approved by the president on Aug. 1, 1950. The Organic Act made all Chamorros U.S. citizens. Although they do not have the right to vote in national elections, voters do caucus during the presidential primary season and send delegates to the Democratic and Republican national party conventions.
A 1968 amendment to the Organic Act provides for the popular election of a governor and lieutenant governor to four-year terms. All persons age 18 years or older are permitted to vote. The legislature is a unicameral body with 15 senators directly elected at large for a term of two years. Guam also elects a delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives for a term of two years; that delegate has limited voting rights that exclude the ability to vote on the final passage of legislation.
The people of Guam voted in 1982 in favour of pursuing a commonwealth relationship similar to that established in the Northern Marianas. A draft Commonwealth Act was approved in 1987, and negotiations with the U.S. Congress were initiated.
The highest appellate court is the Guam Supreme Court. There is also a District Court of Guam, whose judge is appointed by the U.S. president for a term of eight years. There are two levels of local trial courts: the Superior Court of Guam, for criminal and civil cases, and the traffic, juvenile, and small-claims courts. Judges are appointed by the governor with consent of the legislature and are reconfirmed by majority public vote every four years. Appeals may be made to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Each of the island’s villages is headed by a popularly elected mayor. The mayors and vice mayors form the Mayors’ Council of Guam, which makes recommendations regarding administrative and fiscal policies and acts as a liaison between the three branches of government, the military communities, and U.S. federal agencies.
Education is free and compulsory between ages 6 and 16. The University of Guam, which opened in 1952, is a four-year institution that also provides graduate programs at the master’s degree level. Health conditions are relatively advanced. Facilities include public, private, and military hospitals and local clinics. Life expectancies for men and women are roughly comparable to those of the United States. The main causes of death include heart diseases, cancers, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents.
Culture Life of Guam
Guam is culturally diverse, with Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, and other Asian communities of significant size in addition to its indigenous population and people from the mainland United States. As a centre of transportation and communication for the region, it also attracts many islanders from various parts of Micronesia. A large American-style shopping mall in Dededo, the Micronesia Mall, is the largest shopping centre on the island and also serves as a cultural and recreational venue, with movie theatres and an indoor amusement park.
Before World War II the villages were the main social and economic units, preserving customs and traditions similar to those of 19th-century Spain. Fiestas held in commemoration of patron saints were great social and religious events of the year for each village and brought together people from many parts of the island. Fiesta customs are still observed in Guam. However, changes in the social life and institutions of Guamanians have come about with economic development and increasing international contacts. The extended family is the main social unit for most groups on Guam, although many of the younger members travel and live in the United States.
The folk arts and handicrafts of Guam have enjoyed a revival in recent years. Various public and private groups have been created to promote music, dance, and other traditional cultural arts for the benefit of both the local community and tourists. The University of Guam also promotes regional arts and culture.
U.S. national holidays are celebrated on the island, as are several significant local dates such as Discovery Day, March 6, which commemorates the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.
There are daily and semiweekly newspapers and quarterly and monthly magazines published on Guam, and several radio and television stations broadcast local and international news and features daily.
History of Guam
Guam, like the other Mariana Islands, was settled by the second quarter of the 2nd millennium bce by an Indonesian-Filipino people. Archaeological research shows that by 800 ce they had developed a complex society that erected elaborate stone pillars (halege), which served as supports for communal houses (latte).
Ferdinand Magellan probably landed on Guam in 1521. Spain officially claimed the island in 1565 but did not attempt to conquer it until the latter part of the 17th century. After an uprising in 1670 and 25 years of intermittent warfare, the Spanish subdued the population with considerable bloodshed. Diseases introduced by the Europeans, particularly smallpox and influenza, also played an important role in the decimation of the population. Typhoons in 1671 and 1693 caused further destruction and loss of life. Guam remained a Spanish possession until 1898, when, in the course of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. warship Charleston steamed into Apra Harbor and bombarded the old fort. Guam was ceded to the United States, and Spain sold the other islands of the Marianas to Germany in 1899. From that time until 1950 (except for the period of its occupation by the Japanese during World War II) the governor of the island was a naval officer appointed by the president of the United States.
During World War II the Japanese landed on Guam just after the Pearl Harbor attack and occupied the island by Dec. 12, 1941. Allied forces retook Guam by Aug. 10, 1944. It was a major air and naval base for the squadrons of bombers that attacked Japan near the end of the war. Under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Navy, it was made a territory (1950) that was administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Various offices within that department have administered Guam; the Office of Insular Affairs has had responsibility since 1995. Guam remains the site of major U.S. naval and air bases; about one-third of the land in Guam is owned by the U.S. armed forces.
In the 1970s Guam gradually began to move toward representative self-government. The first popularly elected governor ran for office in 1970, and in 1972 Guam was given the right to send one nonvoting delegate (entitled to vote in committees, however) to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1978 the U.S. Senate accorded Guam the right to adopt a territorial constitution. In 1982, in a referendum offering six options, the option of commonwealth status won a plurality of votes. A draft Commonwealth Act was approved in 1987, and continuing negotiations with the United States took place through the late 20th century. Anderson Air Force Base was expanded in the 1990s, and in 2000 it became the first U.S. Air Force installation outside the continental United States to store conventional air-launched cruise missiles. In 2002 another typhoon struck Guam; it caused devastation across the island and left thousands homeless.
Apra Harbor, also called Port Apra, port on the west coast of Guam, one of the Mariana Islands, northern Pacific Ocean. It is the best anchorage on the island and is located just west of Hagåtña (Agana). It is the port of entry and site of a U.S. naval base. The Apra Harbor complex includes a naval station, naval supply depot, public works centre, ship repair facility, and power plant. With about 2,400 feet (730 metres) of frontage for deepwater docking, it is a transshipment point for various Micronesian islands. The harbour, which is protected on the south by Orote Peninsula and on the north by Cabras Island and reefs, was the point of the Allied seaborne invasion of Guam (July 21, 1944) during World War II. It attained renewed importance as a base during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and ’70s. A commercial port with facilities for handling containerized cargo was opened in the harbour in 1969. Pop. (2000) 3,347; (2010) 2,471.
Hagåtña, also spelled Hagatna, formerly Agana, Hagåtña [Credit: Hajime Nakano]town, capital of the unincorporated U.S. territory of Guam, northern Pacific Ocean. It is situated on the west coast of the island, on a beach surrounding Hagåtña Bay at the mouth of the small Hagåtña River. The name of the town was formally changed from Agana to its Chamorro-language form in 1998.
In the late 1660s, Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Jesuit priest, established a mission on Hagåtña Bay, the first official Spanish settlement on Guam. A town of 10,000 inhabitants in 1940, it was completely destroyed during World War II. Reconstruction was hindered by the difficulty of determining ownership of many small plots of land. The Roman Catholic Dulce Nombre de María Cathedral Basilica was rebuilt after World War II. Adjoining the cathedral is the Plaza de España and the Azotea (“Back Porch”), one of a few parts of the original Spanish governor’s palace still standing. Close by is Latte Stone Park, with latte stones (pillars that supported houses of the prehistoric Latte culture). Tamuning, just northeast of Hagåtña, and Piti, to the southwest, have become major business centres at the expense of the capital. Hagåtña usually enjoys a mild climate but is often struck by typhoons. Pop. (2000) 1,122; (2010) 1,051.
University of Guam-University, Guam
higher education in Guam
- Guam: Government and society
Education is free and compulsory between ages 6 and 16. The University of Guam, which opened in 1952, is a four-year institution that also provides graduate programs at the master’s degree level. Health conditions are relatively advanced. Facilities include public, private, and military hospitals and local clinics. Life expectancies for men and women are roughly comparable to those of the...
Tourism of Guam
Guam has developed into a major tourist destination, an industry that provides the bulk of the island’s non-government income. Approximately 1.3 million tourists arrive in Guam each year generating approximately $1.4 billion revenues with visitors from Japan continuing to provide 71% of the tourist market. Although the number of Guam’s visitors fell slightly after several disastrous world events, visitor arrivals have been steadily increasing.
Core Components of Guam’s Economy
Major Revenue Source in the 1960s: Tourism: 20% Military/Federal: 75% Other: 5%
Major Revenue Source in 2003:
Tourism: 60% Military/Federal: 30% Other: 10%
Guam’s Hospitality Industry
Hotel Inventory as of January 2007 –8,415 rooms for 29 hotel properties Capacity in room nights: 3,084,615 (assumes 1.9 guests per room capacity) Employee-room ration: 1.65 (employee to 1 room)
Guam’s Airline Partners - Signatory emplanements for FY2013 at 1,693,962, +8.1% growth over 2012.
United Airlines Delta Airlines Eva Air China Airlines Japan Airlines Korean Air Jeju Airlines Jin Air Philippine Airlines Asia Pacific Airlines (Cargo)
You can visit the Guam International Airport website at www.guamairport.com
Guam Visitor Arrivals 2008-2013
2008: 1,141,779 2009: 1,053,248 2010: 1,197,408 2011: 1,159,778 2012: 1,308,035 2013: 1,334,497
Tourism has represented the primary source of income for Guam’s economy for over twenty-five years. Visitor arrivals rose to over 1,000,000 travelers for the first time in 1994 and have remained near or above that level ever since. Guam’s top four visitor markets include Japan, South Korea, U.S./Hawaii and Taiwan. The great majority of visitors to Guam originate from Japan, as Guam is one of only four markets worldwide that attracts nearly one million Japanese tourists per year. In Fiscal Year 2012, Japan accounted for approximately 71.5% of visitors to Guam, with approximately 50.3% of Japanese visitors originating from the Kanto (Tokyo) region. In Fiscal Year 2012, Guam’s next largest tourist markets were South Korea (13.0%), the U.S./Hawaii (5.1%), Taiwan (3.9%), and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (“CNMI”) (1.4%). Total civilian air arrivals increased approximately 5.9% between Fiscal Year 2011 and Fiscal Year 2012.
In November 2009, the U.S. updated its policies relating to the visa waiver program available for travel to Guam for tourism or business. The current program allows visitors holding passports from Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and the United Kingdom to visit Guam and/or CNMI without a visa for a period of up to 45 days.
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security granted parole authority for Russia commencing on January 15, 2012, allowing visa waivers for Russian visitors to Guam. Visitor arrivals from Russia in Fiscal Year 2012 numbered 2,931 versus 528 in Fiscal Year 2011, an increase of 455%. Tourism 2020 Goals Tourism 2020 is a development plan to help shape Guam’s future, with eight core objectives that are needed in order for Destination Guam to thrive in a competitive global environment. Tourism 2020 is an action-oriented, goal-driven plan with specific and measurable tasks, the completion of which will propel the island forward.
Tourism 2020 Vision for Guam: A world class, first-tier resort destination of choice, offering a U.S. island paradise with stunning ocean vistas, for two million business and leisure visitors from across the region with accommodations and activities ranging from value to five-star luxury — all in a safe, clean, family-friendly environment set amidst a unique 4,000-year old culture.
Eight core objectives to achieve this paradigm shift.
1. Improve Quality and Yield. Upgrade public areas and existing resorts. Incentivize private reinvestment. Add five-star facilities. Improve training and service. Improve dining quality. Establish a business improvement district with covenants, conditions and restrictions and enforced standards. Improve Guam’s image over time.
2. Grow Arrivals and Diversify. Add Chinese with or without visa waiver. Reach 2 million arrivals. Maintain a Japan market mix of at least 55-60%; grow smaller markets; add new markets.
3. Add High-End Hotel Rooms, Incentivize Reinvestment. Add 1,600 rooms by 2020 to accommodate goal pax. Focus on high-end hotels. Incentivize existing properties to reinvest.
4. Focus on Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE). Aggressively pursue conference business to fill the slower periods as well as school groups and other targeted groups.
5. Promote the Chamorro Culture and Unique Multi-cultural Diversity. The only unique competitive differentiator. Make Chamorro music, dance, art, language, culture and values ever-present. Promote Guam’s unique multicultural, Spanish and American influences.
6. Extend Average Length of Stay. Communicate Guam activities and encourage agents to create longer stay packages. Achieve a 33% increase in spend by extending length of stay from 3 days to 4 days.
7. Promote Our Unique Attractions. Professionally market our numerous tourist attractions and events. Encourage development of new attractions and activities.
8. Extend Tourism Beyond Tumon. Extend the visitors district to Hagatna. Grow tourism in Guam's villages. Support local farmers and fisherman and locally made products. Encourage each village to identify a unique specific message and product.
Desired Attractions Potential investment opportunities based on Visitor Exit Surveys:
Theme Park Sports Tourism Micronesian Cultural/Visual/Performing Arts Center Tumon Boardwalk Botanical Garden Village Fiesta/Tumon Night Market Guam Museum Guam Music & Film Fests Contact Information:
Guam Visitor’s Bureau 401 Pale San Vitores Road Tumon, Guam 96913 Tel: (671) 646-5278 Fax: (671) 646-8861 Website: http://www.visitguam.org
Guam Hotel and Restaurant Association P.O. Box 8565 Tamuning, Guam 96931 Tel: (671) 649-1447 Fax: (671) 649-8565 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.ghra.org
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