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Chad

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Major Cities of Chad in the continent of Africa

AbéchéAdéAdréAm TimanAouzouAtiBardaïBébédjiaBeinamarBénoyBéréBiltineBitkineBokoroBolBongorBoussoDobaDourbaliFadaFaya-LargeauFiangaGaouiGoundiGounou GayaGoz BeïdaGuélengdengGuérédaKéloKoro ToroKoumraKyabéLaïLéréLiniaMaoMassaguetMassakoryMassenyaMoïssalaMoundouMongoMoussoroN'DjamenaNgamaOuaraOum HadjerPalaSarhZouar

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THE CHAD COAT OF ARMS
Coat of arms of Chad.svg
Location Chad AU Africa.svg
Location of Chad within the continent of Africa
Chad - Location Map (2013) - TCD - UNOCHA.svg
Map of Chad
Flag of Chad (WFB 2004).gif
Flag Description of Chad:three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
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Official name Jumhūriyyah Tshad (Arabic); République du Tchad (French) (Republic of Chad)
Form of government unitary republic with one legislative body (National Assembly [188])
Head of state President: Idriss Déby
Head of government Prime Minister: Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet
Capital N’Djamena
Official languages Arabic; French
Official religion none
Monetary unit CFA franc (CFAF)
Population (2013 est.) 12,664,000COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 495,755
Total area (sq km) 1,284,000
Urban-rural population

Urban: (2011) 28.2%
Rural: (2011) 71.8%

Life expectancy at birth

Male: (2011) 47.6 years
Female: (2011) 49.8 years

Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate

Male: (2007) 61.5%
Female: (2007) 46.3%

GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2012) 740

Background of Chad

Chad is a landlocked country in north central Africa, with a territory twice the size of Texas.

It is a part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In January 2014, Chad began a two year rotation on the UN Security Council.

Geography of Chad

Tha Land

Chad is bounded on the north by Libya, on the east by Sudan, on the south by the Central African Republic, and on the west by Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. The frontiers of Chad, which constitute a heritage from the colonial era, do not coincide with either natural or ethnic boundaries.

  • Relief and drainage

In its physical structure Chad consists of a large basin bounded on the north, east, and south by mountains. Lake Chad, which represents all that remains of a much larger lake that covered much of the region in earlier geologic periods, is situated in the centre of the western frontier; it is 922 feet (281 metres) above sea level. The lowest altitude of the basin is the Djourab Depression, which is 573 feet (175 metres) above sea level.

In the early Holocene Epoch, possibly until as recently as 7,000 years ago, the lake stood at a level of about 1,100 feet (335 metres) above sea level, or some 180 feet (55 metres) higher than today, and was as much as 550 feet (170 metres) deep. At that stage Mega-Chad, as it has been called, occupied an area of some 130,000 square miles (336,700 square km) and overflowed southward via the present-day Kébi River and then over the Gauthiot Falls westward to the Benue River and the Atlantic Ocean. Older dune systems, flooded by Mega-Chad, form linear islands in the present lake and extend hundreds of miles to the east, the interdunal hollows being occupied by diatomites and other lake sediments.

The mountains that rim the basin include the volcanic Tibesti Massif to the north (of which the highest point is Mount Koussi, with an elevation of 11,204 feet [3,415 metres]), the sandstone peaks of the Ennedi Plateau to the northeast, the crystalline rock mountains of the Ouaddaï (Wadai) region to the east, and the Oubangui Plateau to the south. The semicircle is completed to the southwest by the mountains of Adamawa and Mandara, which lie mostly beyond the frontier in Cameroon and Nigeria.

Chad’s river network is virtually limited to the Chari and Logone rivers and their tributaries, which flow from the southeast to feed Lake Chad. The remaining Chad waterways are either seasonal or are of insignificant size. The Chari, which arises from headstreams in the Central African Republic to the south, is later joined from the east by the Salamat Wadi and from the west by the Ouham River, its largest tributary. After entering an ill-defined area of swampland between Niellim and Dourbali, it flows through a large delta into Lake Chad. The Chari is about 750 miles (1,200 km) in length and has a flow that normally varies between 600 and 12,000 cubic feet (17,000 to 340,000 litres) per second, according to the season. The Logone, which for some of its course runs along the Cameroon frontier, is formed by the junction of the Pendé and Mbéré rivers; its flow varies between 170 and 3,000 cubic feet (4,800 and 85,000 litres) per second, and its course is more than 600 miles (965 km) long before it joins the Chari at N’Djamena. The level of Lake Chad fluctuates according to the flow of these rivers, as well as according to the degree of precipitation, evaporation, and seepage. The droughts of the 1970s and early ’80s in the Sahel region of western Africa reduced the lake to record low levels. By 1985 it had been reduced to a pool, immediately to the north of the Chari–Logone mouth, occupying about 1,000 square miles (2,600 square km). The size of the lake continued to decline, and in the early 21st century, the area was typically about 580 square miles (1,500 square km).

  • Soils

Several types of soil formation occur in Chad, apart from the sand of the desert zone and the sheer rock of the mountainous areas. On the south side of Lake Chad the soils are derived from clayey deposits that accumulated on the floor of Mega-Chad. Along the seasonally flooded banks of the Chari and Logone rivers and the Salamat Wadi, hydromorphic (waterlogged) soils occur. Tropical iron-bearing soils, red in colour, are found on the exposed folds and mounds of the Ouaddaï region’s upland slopes. In the area north of Lake Chad, subarid soils are characteristic, except in the depressions that occur between the dunes on the shores of Lake Chad, where hydromorphic soils liable to salinization are found.

  • Climate

Chad’s wide range in latitudes (that extend southward from the Tropic of Cancer for more than 15°) is matched by a climatic range that varies from wet and dry tropical to hot arid. At the towns of Moundou and Sarh, in the wet and dry tropical zone, between 32 and 48 inches (800 and 1,200 mm) of rain falls annually between May and October. In the central semiarid tropical (Sahel) zone, where N’Djamena is situated, between 12 and 32 inches (300 and 800 mm) of rain falls between June and September. In the north rains are infrequent, with an annual average of less than one inch being recorded at Largeau.

Chad thus has one relatively short rainy season. The dry season, which lasts from December to February everywhere in the country, is relatively cool, with daytime temperatures in the mid-80s to mid-90s F (upper 20s to mid-30s C) and nighttime temperatures that drop to the mid-50s F (low to mid-10s C). From March onward it becomes very hot until the first heavy rains fall. At N’Djamena, for example, daytime temperatures average more than 100° F (38° C) between March and June. Heavy rains begin at N’Djamena in July, and average daytime temperatures drop to the low 90s F (mid-30s C), but nighttime temperatures remain in the 70s F (20s C) until the onset of N’Djamena’s dry, cool season in November.

  • Plant and animal life

Three vegetation zones, correlated with the rainfall, may be distinguished. These are a wet and dry tropical zone in the south, characterized by shrubs, tall grasses, and scattered broad-leaved deciduous trees; a semiarid tropical (Sahel) zone, in which savanna vegetation gradually merges into a region of thorn bushes and open steppe country; and a hot arid zone, composed of dunes and plateaus in which vegetation is scarce and occasional palm oases are to be found.

The tall grasses and the extensive marshes of the savanna zone have an abundant wildlife. There large mammals—such as elephants, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, warthogs, giraffes, antelopes, lions, leopards, and cheetahs—coexist with a wide assortment of birds and reptiles. The rivers and the lake are among the richest in fish of all African waters. The humid regions also contain swarms of insects, some of which are dangerous.

Chad Geography Profile 2014

  • Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
  • Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
  • Map references: Africa
  • Area
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
  • Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California
  • Land boundaries
total: 6,406 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
  • Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  • Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
  • Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
  • Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
  • Elevation extremes
lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
  • Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
  • Land use
arable land: 3.82%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 96.16% (2011)
  • Irrigated land: 302.7 sq km (2003)
  • Total renewable water resources: 43 cu km (2011)
  • Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 0.88 cu km/yr (12%/12%/76%)
per capita: 84.81 cu m/yr (2005)'
  • Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
  • Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
  • Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  • signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
  • Geography - note
note 1: Chad is largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savanah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), i.e., roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

Demographics of Chad

The People of Chad People The population of Chad presents a tapestry composed of different languages, peoples, and religions that is remarkable even amid the variety of Africa. The degree of variety encountered in Chad underscores the significance of the region as a crossroads of linguistic, social, and cultural interchange.

  • Languages

More than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken in the country. Although many of these languages are imperfectly recorded, they may be divided into the following 12 groupings: (1) the Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi group, representing languages spoken by about one million people in southern and central Chad, (2) the Mundang-Tuburi-Mbum languages, which are spoken by several hundred thousand people in southwestern Chad, (3) the Chado-Hamitic group, which is related to the Hausa spoken in Nigeria, (4) the Kanembu-Zaghawa languages, spoken in the north, mostly by nomads, (5) the Maba group, spoken in the vicinity of Abéché and throughout the Ouaddaï region of eastern Chad, (6) the Tama languages, spoken in the Abéché, Adré, Goz Béïda, and Am Dam regions, (7) Daju, spoken in the area of Goz Béïda and Am Dam, (8) some languages of the Central African groups, particularly Sango (also the lingua franca of the Central African Republic), which are spoken in the south, (9) the Bua group, spoken in southern and central Chad, (10) the Somrai group, spoken in western and central Chad, and (11) Mimi and (12) Fur, both spoken in the extreme east.

In addition to this rich assortment, Arabic is also spoken in various forms and is one of the two official languages of the country. The dialects spoken by the nomadic Arabs differ from the tongue spoken by settled Arabs. A simplified Arabic is spoken in towns and markets; its diffusion is linked to that of Islam.

French is the other official language, and it is used in communications and in instruction as well, although the national radio network also broadcasts in Arabic, Sara Madjingay, Tuburi, and Mundang. While a regional form of French, showing local linguistic and environmental peculiarities, is spoken widely in the towns, its penetration into the countryside is uneven. Its use is closely linked to the development of education.

  • Ethnic groups

As might be expected, the linguistic variety reflects an ethnic composition of great complexity. A general classification may nevertheless be made, again in terms of the three regions of Chad.

In the wet and dry tropical zone, the Sara group forms a significant element of the population in the central parts of the Chari and Logone river basins. The Laka and Mbum peoples live to the west of the Sara groups and, like the Gula and Tumak of the Goundi area, are culturally distinct from their Sara neighbours. Along the banks of the Chari and Logone rivers, and in the region between the two rivers, are found the Tangale peoples.

Among the inhabitants of the semiarid tropical zone are the Barma of Bagirmi, the founders of the kingdom of the same name; they are surrounded by groups of Kanuri, Fulani, Hausa, and Arabs, many of whom have come from outside Chad itself. Along the lower courses of the Logone and Chari rivers are the Kotoko, who are supposedly descended from the ancient Sao population that formerly lived in the region. The Yedina (Buduma) and Kuri inhabit the Lake Chad region and, in the Kanem area, are associated with the Kanembu and Tunjur, who are of Arabic origin. All of these groups are sedentary and coexist with Daza, Kreda, and Arab nomads. The Hadjeray (of the Guera Massif) and Abou Telfân are composed of refugee populations who, living on their mountainous terrain, have resisted various invasions. On the plains surrounding the Hadjeray are the Bulala, Kuka, and the Midogo, who are sedentary peoples. In the eastern region of Ouaddaï live the Maba, among whom the Kado once formed an aristocracy. They constitute a nucleus surrounded by a host of other groups who, while possessing their own languages, nevertheless constitute a distinct cultural unit. The Tama to the north and the Daju to the south have formed their own separate sultanates. Throughout the Ouaddaï region are found groups of nomadic Arabs, who are also found in other parts of south central Chad. Despite their widespread diffusion, these Arabs represent a single ethnic group composed of a multitude of tribes. In Kanem other Arabs, mostly of Libyan origin, are also found.

In the northern Chad regions of Tibesti, Borkou, and Ennedi the population is composed of black nomads. Their dialects are related to those of the Kanembu and Kanuri.

  • Religion

About three-fifths of the population are Sunni Muslim. The great majority of Muslims are found in the north and east of Chad. Islamization in Kanem came very early and was followed by the conversion to Islam of the major political entities of the region, such as the sultanates of Wadai, Bagirmi, and Fitri, and—more recently—the Saharan region. Islam is well established in most major towns and wherever Arab populations are found. It has attracted a wide variety of ethnic groups and has forged a certain unity which, however, has not resulted in the complete elimination of various local practices and customs.

Animists account for almost one-fifth of the population. Animism flourishes in the southern part of the country and in the mountainous regions of Guera. The various traditional religions provide a strong basis for cohesion in the villages where they are practiced. Despite a diversity of beliefs, a widespread common feature is the socioreligious initiation of young people into adult society.

Slightly more than one-fifth of the population are Christian, primarily Protestant or Roman Catholic. In Chad, as elsewhere, Christian missionary work has not affected the Muslim population; it has been directed toward the animist populations in the cities in the western regions south of the Chari River and in parts of the central uplands area.

  • Settlement patterns

Conditioned by soil and climate, land is put to different uses in the three vegetation zones, which dictates settlement patterns. The wet and dry tropical zone is inhabited by farmers who cultivate rice and sorghum in the clay soils and peanuts (groundnuts) and millet in the sandier areas. Cassava (manioc) is also cultivated. Between the latitudes of 11° and 15° N, the retreat of the rivers in the dry season leaves behind flooded depressions called yaere, allowing a second crop of “dry season” sorghum, or berbere, to be cultivated. Since 1928 the cultivation of cotton in the area between the Logone and Chari rivers has been encouraged, first by the colonial administration and since 1960 by the national government. Cotton cultivation, while tending to upset the ecological balance by exhausting the soil, has nevertheless resulted in the introduction of a cash economy in place of a barter economy. The cultivation of rice, begun in 1958 in irrigated plots in the Bongor region, south of N’Djamena, has proved successful. Improved strains of both cotton and rice have produced higher yields.

The intermediate semiarid tropical zone is inhabited by both sedentary cultivators and nomadic pastoralists. The northern limit of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, deadly to cattle and the carrier of sleeping sickness to humans, is latitude 10° N; beyond this limit, extensive stock raising begins, occasionally in association with agriculture, as for example in the Kanem region. The inhabitants raise millet and grow peanuts wherever the mean annual rainfall exceeds 15 inches (380 mm). Cotton is grown where and when rainfall exceeds 30 inches (760 mm). Large herds of cattle migrate over the semiarid tropical zone in search of pasture and water. In very limited areas bordering Lake Chad, the presence of water allows three harvests of wheat and corn (maize) to be grown in some years on irrigated plots called polders. Elsewhere the seminomadic inhabitants are almost completely dependent upon rainfall. Drought has had serious repercussions, affecting both the livestock and the pastoralists, whose livelihood depends on milk products.

In the hot arid zone, nomads live among their herds of camels, frequenting palm groves in such oases as that at Largeau. Farther north, in the Tibesti Mountains, tiny plots of millet, tomatoes, peppers, and other minor crops are grown for local consumption, often in the shade of date palms. These garden crops depend on irrigation from springs breaking out from the sandstones and volcanic rocks at widely separated points and shallow wells in the sandy sediments flooring steep-sided valleys.

Urban life in Chad is virtually restricted to the capital, N’Djamena. Founded in the early years of the 20th century, the city has undergone a dramatic growth in population due not to a high degree of industrialization but to the other attractions of urban life. The majority of the population is engaged in commerce. Other major towns, such as Sarh (formerly Fort-Archambault), Moundou, and Abéché, are less urbanized than is the capital.

  • Demographic trends

Chad’s population is increasing at a comparatively low rate for an African country, although this rate is higher than the world average. Both the birth and death rates in Chad are well above the global average and higher than those of most neighbouring countries. Life expectancy is less than 50 years, which is below the world average but similar to most neighbouring countries. Almost half the population of Chad are under age 15. About one-fourth of the people are considered to be urban dwellers, the majority living in N’Djamena.

During the mid- to late 20th century, there was emigration—especially to Sudan, Nigeria, and northern Cameroon—resulting from drought, conflict, and famine in Chad. In the early 21st century, refugees from Sudan frequently streamed across the border to avoid conflict in that country’s Darfur region; in addition, refugees from that country as well as Chad and the Central African Republic moved back and forth between the countries to flee from rebel activity prevalent in the border regions.


Chad Demographics Profile 2014

  • Population: 11,412,107 (July 2014 est.)
  • Age structure
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,588,424/female 2,515,935)
15-24 years: 20.6% (male 1,143,812/female 1,211,136)
25-54 years: 27.8% (male 1,436,018/female 1,737,901)
55-64 years
3.9% (male 193,173/female 247,584)
65 years and over
3% (male 140,592/female 197,532) (2014 est.)
  • Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 102.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 97.4 %
elderly dependency ratio
4.8 %
potential support ratio
20.7 (2014 est.)
  • Median age
total: 17.2 years
male: 16.1 years
female: 18.2 years (2014 est.)
  • Population
growth rate 1.92% (2014 est.)
Birth rate 37.29 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate 14.56 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate -3.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
  • Urbanization
urban population: 21.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
  • Major cities - population: N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.079 million (2011)
  • Sex ratio
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
  • Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.2

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2004 est.)

  • Infant mortality rate
total: 90.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 95.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 84.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
  • Life expectancy at birth
total population: 49.44 years
male: 48.3 years
female
50.63 years (2014 est.)
  • Total fertility rate: 4.68 children born/woman (2014 est.)
  • Contraceptive prevalence rate: 4.8% (2010)
  • HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.7% (2012 est.)
  • HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 213,100 (2012 est.)
  • HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,400 (2012 est.)
  • Drinking water source

improved:

urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.3% of population (2012 est.)
  • Sanitation facility access

improved:

urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 11.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 88.1% of population (2012 est.)
  • Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
  • Nationality
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
  • Ethnic groups- Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
  • Religions- Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
  • Languages- French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
  • Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 35.4%
male
45.6%
female: 25.4% (2011 est.)
  • School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)
  • Child labor - children ages 5-14
total number: 1,475,960
percentage: 48 % (2010 est.)
  • Education expenditures: 2.3% of GDP (2011)
  • Maternal mortality rate: 1,100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
  • Children under the age: of 5 years underweight 33.9% (2004)
  • Health expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2011)
  • Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
  • Hospital bed density: 0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)
  • Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.7% (2008)

Economy of Chad

Chad Economy Profile 2014

  • Economy - overview
Oil and agriculture drive Chad’s economy. At least 80% of Chad's population relies for its livelihood on subsistence farming and livestock raising and oil provides the bulk of export revenues. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. Remittances have also been an important source of income and Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment. Oil production came on stream in late 2003 and Chad began to export oil in 2004. Economic growth has been positive in recent years due to high oil prices and strong local harvests, but Chad’s fiscal situation is repeatedly exposed to declining oil prices and drought . Recently, the economy has been strained by the costs of repatriating Chadians fleeing the violence in South Sudan and the Central African Republic. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption.
  • GDP (purchasing power parity)
$28 billion (2013 est.)
$26.94 billion (2012 est.)
$24.74 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
  • GDP (official exchange rate): $13.59 billion (2013 est.)
  • GDP - real growth rate
3.9% (2013 est.)
8.9% (2012 est.)
0.1% (2011 est.)
  • GDP - per capita (PPP)
$2,500 (2013 est.)
$2,500 (2012 est.)
$2,400 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
  • Gross national saving
46.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
45.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
45.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
  • GDP - composition, by end use
household consumption: 25.9%
government consumption: 12.2%
investment in fixed capital: 53%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 32%
imports of goods and services: -23.4%

(2013 est.)

  • GDP - composition by sector
agriculture: 46.3%
industry: 9.9%
services: 43.8% (2013 est.)
  • Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
  • Labor force: 4.293 million (2007)
  • Labor force - by occupation
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
  • Unemployment rate: NA%
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
  • Budget revenues: $2.753 billion
  • expenditures: $3.557 billion (2013 est.)
  • Taxes and other revenues- 20.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
  • Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)- -5.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
  • Public debt
30.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
31.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
  • Inflation rate (consumer prices)
4.5% (2013 est.)
10.2% (2012 est.)
  • Central bank discount rate
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
  • Commercial bank prime lending rate
15.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Stock of narrow money
$1.598 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.442 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Stock of broad money
$1.804 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.559 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Stock of domestic credit
$832.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Market value of publicly traded shares $NA
  • Agriculture - products cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
  • Industries oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
  • Industrial production growth rate 10% (2013 est.)
  • Current Account Balance
-$827.1 million (2013 est.)
-$378.9 million (2012 est.)
  • Exports
$3.865 billion (2013 est.)
$4.126 billion (2012 est.)
  • Exports - commodities oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
  • Exports - partners US 81.9%, China 6.7% (2012)
  • Imports
$2.701 billion (2013 est.)
$NA (2012 est.)
  • Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
  • Imports - partners China 20.2%, Cameroon 18.2%, France 16.1%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, US 4.2% (2012)
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$1.304 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.174 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Debt - external
$1.828 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.794 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
  • Stock of direct foreign investment - at home $NA

$4.5 billion (2006 est.)

  • Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad $NA
  • Exchange rates Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Fiscal year calendar year


Government of Chad

Chad Government Profile 2014

  • Country name- conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  • conventional short form: Chad
  • local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
  • local short form: Tchad/Tshad
  • Government type- republic
  • Capital name: N'Djamena
  • geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
  • time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
  • Administrative divisions- 23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Quest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
  • Independence- 11 August 1960 (from France)
  • National holiday- Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
  • Constitution- several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2010)
  • Legal system- mixed legal system of civil and customary law
  • International- law organization participation has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
  • Suffrage- 18 years of age; universal
  • Executive branch
chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi DEUBET (since 21 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most :votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%


  • Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first :delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
  • Judicial branch
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
  • Political parties and leaders Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE]
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
  • Political pressure groups and leaders rebel groups
  • International organization participation- ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
  • Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat NASSER (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
  • Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador James KNIGHT (since 13 March 2013)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
  • National anthem name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
  • lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
  • note: adopted 1960
CHAD NATIONAL ANTHEM

People of Chad, arise and get busy!

You have won the fight for your land and your rights.

Your liberty will be born from your courage.

Lift up your eyes, the future belongs to you.

Oh, my country, may God choose to guard you.

May your neighbors admire your children.

Full of joy and peacefully move forward as you sing,

Faithful to your ancestors who are watching you.



Culture Life of Chad

With its rich variety of peoples and languages, Chad possesses a valuable cultural heritage. The country is famed for the rock paintings of its ancient inhabitants, which can be found in abundance in the caves and rock overhangs of the Tibesti Mountains. Especially well-preserved sites are located at Gonoa and Zouar. Terra-cotta heads and figures found at Gaou, near Lake Chad, are believed to be relics of the early Sao civilization.

The country’s capital, N’Djamena, has a cosmopolitan air, with lively sidewalk cafés, small bars, and discotheques. These venues are sometimes used for a modern homegrown custom called pari-match, in which a private party is staged in a rented bar or public place, with the proceeds from alcohol sales going to the host to help pay for school tuition, home repairs, and other household expenses. The city is also known for its bazaars, which sell locally produced traditional goods and crafts such as textiles, camel-hair carpets and jackets, brass ornaments, and pottery. Also located in the capital is the National Museum, which houses prehistoric and traditional artifacts.

Chad has a small but well-regarded music industry. Modern Chadian musicians combine Western-influenced pop with traditional songs and instruments. Important indigenous instruments include a three-stringed lute featuring a bowl-shaped sound box covered with camel skin. By custom, only men are allowed to play these lutes. One of Chad’s most popular recording artists is the ballad singer Clément Masdongar, who has earned a following in the French-speaking countries of Africa and made several appearances at European musical festivals. Tibesti, a Chadian dance-music group, has also appeared internationally.

The local people of Chad have long enjoyed traditional contests of strength and skill. In the south footraces have often figured in the coming-of-age rites of several groups, with courses extending to a hundred miles and more. Such races have also popularly accompanied cattle-driving festivals and other celebrations. In the hotter, drier north, camel races, archery competitions, and wrestling matches mark traditional wintertime festivals, which are still observed alongside Muslim holidays.

More modern competitive sports such as football (soccer) and basketball are also popular throughout Chad, but intramural matches are rare, owing largely to the lack of travel funds and the impassability of Chad’s mostly dirt roads for much of the year. As a result, Chadians have not been able to field teams for many regional competitions, nor have they been able to gain the experience that comes from playing against a variety of teams. Chad made its Olympic debut at the 1964 Tokyo Games, but it has not yet won an Olympic medal.

History of Chad

9 ~ 17 century AD, has established a bornu Gagne, ouadai, Bajimier Sudan and other Muslim kingdom. The country became a French colony in 1902, and in 1910 was classified as a territory of French Equatorial Africa It took a year for the country to recognize the laws of Germany under Morocco's protection. "War", the return to French Equatorial Africa. Overseas territory in 1946 to become law. In early 1957, the country became a semi-autonomous republic, and on November 28, 1958, was declared a French Community and an autonomous republic. On August 11, 1960, independence was declared and the Republic of Chad established..


The region of the eastern Sahara and Sudan from Fezzan, Bilma, and Chad in the west to the Nile valley in the east was well peopled in Neolithic times, as discovered sites attest. Probably typical of the earliest populations were the dark-skinned cave dwellers described by Herodotus as inhabiting the country south of Fezzan. The ethnographic history of the region is that of gradual modification of this basic stock by the continual infiltration of nomadic and increasingly Arabicized white African elements, entering from the north via Fezzan and Tibesti and, especially after the 14th century, from the Nile valley via Darfur. According to legend, the country around Lake Chad was originally occupied by the Sao. This vanished people is probably represented today by the Kotoko, in whose country, along the banks of the Logone and Chari, was unearthed in the 1950s a medieval culture notable for work in terra-cotta and bronze.

The relatively large and politically sophisticated kingdoms of the central Sudan were the creation of Saharan Imazighen (Berbers), drawn southward by their continuous search for pasturage and easily able to impose their hegemony on the fragmentary indigenous societies of agriculturalists. This process was intensified by the expansion of Islam. There are indications of a large immigration of pagan Imazighen into the central Sudan early in the 8th century.

  • From the 16th to the 19th century

The most important of these states, Kanem-Bornu, which was at the height of its power in the later 16th century, owed its preeminence to its command of the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route to Tripoli.

Products of the Islamized Sudanic culture diffused from Kanem were the kingdoms of Bagirmi and Ouaddaï, which emerged in the early years of the 17th century out of the process of conversion to Islam. In the 18th century the Arab dynasty of Ouaddaï was able to throw off the suzerainty of Darfur and extend its territories by the conquest of eastern Kanem. Slave raiding at the expense of animist populations to the south constituted an important element in the prosperity of all these Muslim states. In the 19th century, however, they were in full decline, torn by wars and internecine feuds. In the years 1883–93 they all fell to the Sudanese adventurer Rābiḥ az-Zubayr.

  • French administration

By this time the partition of Africa among the European powers was entering its final phase. Rābiḥ was overthrown in 1900, and the traditional Kanembu dynasty was reestablished under French protection. Chad became part of the federation of French Equatorial Africa in 1910. The pacification of the whole area of the present republic was barely completed by 1914, and between the wars French rule was unprogressive. A pact between Italy and France that would have ceded the Aozou Strip to Italian-ruled Libya was never ratified by the French National Assembly, but it provided a pretext for Libya to seize the territory in 1973. During World War II Chad gave unhesitating support to the Free French cause. After 1945 the territory shared in the constitutional advance of French Equatorial Africa. In 1946 it became an overseas territory of the French Republic.

  • Independence

A large measure of autonomy was conceded under the constitutional law of 1957, when the first territorial government was formed by Gabriel Lisette, a West Indian who had become the leader of the Chad Progressive Party (PPT). An autonomous republic within the French Community was proclaimed in November 1958, and complete independence in the restructured community was attained on Aug. 11, 1960. The country’s stability was endangered by tensions between the black and often Christian populations of the more economically progressive southwest and the conservative, Muslim, nonblack leadership of the old feudal states of the north, and its problems were further complicated by Libyan involvement.

Lisette was removed by an associate more acceptable to some of the opposition, N’Garta (François) Tombalbaye, a southern trade union leader, who became the first president of the republic. In March 1961 Tombalbaye achieved a fusion of the PPT with the principal opposition party, the National African Party (PNA), to form a new Union for the Progress of Chad. An alleged conspiracy by Muslim elements, however, led in 1963 to the dissolution of the National Assembly, a brief state of emergency, and the arrest of the leading ministers formerly associated with the PNA. Only government candidates ran in the new elections in December 1963, ushering in the one-party state.

  • Civil war

In the mid-1960s two guerrilla movements emerged. The Front for the National Liberation of Chad (Frolinat) was established in 1966 and operated primarily in the north from its headquarters at the southern Libyan oasis of Al-Kufrah, while the smaller Chad National Front (FNT) operated in the east-central region. Both groups aimed at the overthrow of the existing government, the reduction of French influence in Chad, and closer association with the Arab states of North Africa. Heavy fighting occurred in 1969 and 1970, and French military forces were brought in to suppress the revolts.

By the end of the 1970s, civil war had become not so much a conflict between Chad’s Muslim northern region and the black southern region as a struggle between northern political factions. Libyan troops were brought in at Pres. Goukouni Oueddei’s request in December 1980 and were withdrawn, again at his request, in November 1981. In a reverse movement the Armed Forces of the North (FAN) of Hissène Habré, which had retreated into Sudan in December 1980, reoccupied all the important towns in eastern Chad in November 1981. Peacekeeping forces of the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union) withdrew in 1982, and Habré formed a new government in October of the same year. Simultaneously, an opposition government under the leadership of Goukouni was established, with Libyan military support, at Bardaï in the north. After heavy fighting in 1983–84 Habré’s FAN prevailed, aided by French troops. France withdrew its troops in 1984 but Libya refused to do so. Libya launched incursions deeper into Chad in 1986, and they were turned back by government forces with help from France and the United States.

In early 1987 Habré’s forces recovered the territory in northern Chad that had been under Libyan control and for a few weeks reoccupied Aozou. When this oasis was retaken by Muammar al-Qaddafi’s Libyan forces, Habré retaliated by raiding Maaten es Sarra, which is well inside Libya. A truce was called in September 1987.

  • Continuing conflict

Habré continued to face threats to his regime. In April 1989 the interior minister, Brahim Mahamot Itno, and two key military advisers, Hassan Djamouss and Idriss Déby, were suspected of plotting to overthrow Habré. Itno was arrested and Djamouss was killed, but Déby escaped and began new attacks a year later. By late 1990 his Movement for Chadian National Salvation forces had captured Abéché, and Habré fled the country. Déby and his forces then took N’Djamena, the capital. Déby suspended the constitution and formed a new government with himself as president. Although it was reported that he had received arms from Libya, he denied Libyan involvement and promised to establish a multiparty democracy in Chad.

Déby’s takeover of the government was not without resistance. In 1991 and 1992 there were several attacks and coup attempts by opposition forces, many of whom were still aligned with Habré, but Déby maintained his grip on the government and the country. A national conference was held in 1993 to establish a transitional government, and Déby was officially designated interim president. In 1996 a new constitution was approved and Déby was elected president in the first multiparty presidential elections held in Chad’s history. Peace was still fragile, however, and periodic skirmishes with opposition groups developed into a full rebellion in late 1998 when the Mouvement pour la Démocratie et la Justice au Tchad (MDJT) began an offensive in the northern part of the country. Other opposition groups later joined forces with the MDJT, and the rebellion continued into the 21st century.

In 2001 Déby was reelected amid allegations of fraud by his opponents; however, international observers found the electoral proceedings largely to be valid. Meanwhile, Déby’s government was still coping with major rebel offensives until peace accords in 2002 and 2003 essentially ended most of the fighting for a few years. Also in 2003, years of planning and construction came to fruition when Chad became an oil-producing country; the revenues generated from that undertaking had the potential to transform the country’s economic situation.

Despite the illusion of progress Déby’s government made by promoting peace and creating an opportunity for economic prosperity, there was the reality of a corrupt and repressive regime. Déby and his administration were known for brutally repressing individual rights and freedoms, with Chadian security forces regularly committing serious human rights abuses. The administration was also beset with allegations of corruption. There were additional coup attempts, including those in 2004 and 2006. Rebel offensives also resumed, most notably in 2006, prior to Déby’s reelection to a third term as president, and in 2008, when rebels reached N’Djamena before retreating; many Chadians were displaced by the fighting. The promise of economic prosperity also dissipated; although there were some noteworthy infrastructure projects, Déby’s administration appeared to use much of the revenue from the oil industry for weapons to combat rebel offensives rather than to support much-needed social and economic programs and development in the country.

Several rebel leaders involved in the 2008 rebel offensive were tried in absentia in August of that year, as was former president Habré, who was suspected of directing rebel activity in Chad while living in exile in Senegal. Habré and the rebel leaders were found guilty of attempting to overthrow Déby’s government and were sentenced to death. Habré also faced charges in Senegal regarding politically motivated killings and acts of torture allegedly committed during his rule in Chad. Senegal pursued those charges at the request of the African Union (AU), but Senegalese officials spent years vacillating on whether they should actually put Habré on trial. The situation came to a head in 2012 when the International Court of Justice ruled that Senegal had to prosecute Habré or extradite him. Senegal then agreed to an AU plan to establish a special court in Dakar to try Habré. He was taken into custody on June 30, 2013, and two days later appeared before the special court, where he was formally charged with having committed crimes against humanity, war crimes, and torture during the eight years he ruled Chad.

In addition to internal conflicts, at the beginning of the 21st century Chad had problems along its border with neighbouring countries Niger, the Central African Republic, and most notably Sudan. In early 2003, fighting in the Darfur region of western Sudan sent thousands of Sudanese fleeing to Chad; by early 2005 it was estimated that there were some 200,000 refugees in Chad. Chadian troops were drawn into the conflict periodically, as Sudanese militias crossed over the border into Chad while chasing Sudanese rebels or attacking refugee camps; Chadian rebels were also suspected of operating from bases in Sudan. The governments in both Chad and Sudan accused each other of supporting rebel activity in the other’s country. In January 2008 a European Union peacekeeping force was deployed to protect refugees of Chad, Sudan, and the Central African Republic in conflict zones along the borders; it was replaced by a larger contingent of United Nations peacekeeping forces in March 2009.

Attempts to resolve the issues that caused years of conflict between Chad and Sudan had been made in 2007 and 2008 but met with little success. A resolution appeared to be reached in January 2010 when the governments of both countries signed an agreement that provided for the means to control their common border and assurances that neither country would allow the rebel groups of the other to operate from within its territory.

In 2011 Chad’s presidential election was initially postponed for a few weeks, ostensibly to address complaints from the opposition regarding flaws in the voter-registration process. In spite of the delay, the main opposition figures maintained that their complaints were not resolved, and, citing the impossibility of a credible vote, they boycotted the April 25 election. Unsurprisingly, Déby was reelected, winning almost 89 percent of the vote.

Energy of Chard

Chad Energy Profile 2014

  • Electricity - production: 98 million kWh (2010 est.)
  • Electricity - consumption: 91.14 million kWh (2010 est.)
  • Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2012 est.)
  • Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2012 est.)
  • Electricity - installed generating capacity: 31,000 kW (2010 est.)
  • Oil - production: 104,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
  • Oil - exports: 125,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Oil - proved reserves: 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,817 bbl/day (2011 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,754 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
  • Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - proved reserves: 999.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
  • Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energyElectricity - production: 98 million kWh (2010 est.)
  • Electricity - consumption: 91.14 million kWh (2010 est.)
  • Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2012 est.)
  • Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2012 est.)
  • Electricity - installed generating capacity: 31,000 kW (2010 est.)
  • Oil - production: 104,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
  • Oil - exports: 125,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Oil - proved reserves: 1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,817 bbl/day (2011 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,754 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  • Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
  • Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
  • Natural gas - proved reserves: 999.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
  • Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 289,800 Mt (2011 est.)

Telecommunications of Chad

Chad Telecommunications Profile 2014

  • Telephones - main lines in use 29,900 (2012)
  • Telephones - mobile cellular
4.2 million (2012)Telephone system general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
  • Broadcast media- 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
  • Internet country code- .td
  • Internet hosts- 6 (2012)
  • Internet users- 168,100 (2009)

Transportation of Chad

Chad Transportation Profile 2014

  • Roadways
total: 40,000 km
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
  • Waterways: (Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
  • Pipelines: oil 582 km (2013)
  • Airports: 59 (2013)
  • Airports - with paved runways
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
  • Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m:
11 (2013)

Military of Chad

Chad Military Profile 2014

  • Military branches- Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
  • Military service age and obligation- 20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2012)
  • Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 2,090,244
females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)
  • Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 1,183,242
females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male: 128,723
female: 128,244 (2010 est.)
  • Military expenditures
NA% (2012)
2.28% of GDP (2011)
NA% (2010)

Transnational Issues of Chad

Chad Transnational Issues Profile 2014

  • Disputes - international
since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
  • Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 352,948 (Sudan); 110,000 (Central African Republic) (2014)
IDPs: 90,000 (majority are in the east) (2013)
  • Trafficking in persons current situation:
Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking problem is mainly internal and frequently involves family members entrusting children to relatives or intermediaries in return for promises of education, apprenticeships, goods, or money; child trafficking victims are subjected to involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or commercial sexual exploitation; some Chadian girls who travel to larger towns in search of work are forced into prostitution; in 2012, Chadian children were identified in some government military training centers and among rebel groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has made a limited commitment to increased anti-trafficking law enforcement but continues to lack formal victim identification procedures; draft revisions to Chad's penal code that would prohibit child trafficking and provide protection for victims were not enacted for the third consecutive year; the government continues its nationwide campaign on human rights issues, including human trafficking, and high-ranking officials, such as the president and prime minister, are speaking out publicly against human trafficking (2013)

Environment of Chad

Carbon dioxide emissions of Chad
Consumption of ozone-depleting substances of Chad
Energy efficiency of Chad
Habitat protection of Chad
Marine habitat protection of Chad
Resource usage of Chad
Terrestrial habitat protection of Chad

Health of Chad

AIDS morbidity of Chad
AIDS mortality of Chad
AIDS orphans of Chad
Child malnutrition of Chad
Condom use of Chad
Contraceptive use among currently married women 15-49 years old of Chad
HIV prevalence rate of Chad
HIV prevention of Chad
Infant health of Chad
Malaria morbidity of Chad
Malaria mortality of Chad
Malaria prevention of Chad
Malaria treatment of Chad
Malnutrition of Chad
Maternal health of Chad
Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources of Chad
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities of Chad
Tuberculosis morbidity of Chad
Tuberculosis mortality of Chad
Tuberculosis prevention of Chad
Tuberculosis treatment of Chad
Unmet need for family planning of Chad

Chad in 2004

Chad Area: 1,284,000 sq km (495,755 sq mi) Population (2004 est.): 9,539,000, excluding some 180,000 refugees from The Sudan Capital: N’Djamena Chief of state: President Lieut. Gen. Idriss Déby Head...>>>read more<<<


Disclaimer

This is not the official site of this country. Most of the information in this site were taken from the U.S. Department of State, The Central Intelligence Agency, The United Nations, [1],[2], [3], [4], [5],[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14],[15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24],[25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],[31], [32], [33], [34], and the [35].

Other sources of information will be mentioned as they are posted.