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Andorra

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Urbanized Valley of Andorra in the continent of Europe

Andorra la Vella (Capital)CanilloEncampEscaldes-EngordanyLa MassanaOrdinoSant Julià de Lòria

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ANDORRA COAT OF ARMS
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Location of Andorra within the continent of Europe
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Map of Andorra
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Flag Description of Andorra:The Andorra flag was officially adopted in 1866. The flag features three equal vertical bands of blue, yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band. Those colors are said to represent Andorra'a independence from both Franc..

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Official name Principat d’Andorra (Principality of Andorra)
Form of government parliamentary coprincipality with one legislative house (General Council [28])
Heads of state President of France: François Hollande; Bishop of Urgell, Spain: Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Head of government Head of Government: Antoni Martí Petit
Capital Andorra la Vella
Official language Catalan
Official religion none1
Monetary unit euro (€)2
Population (2013 est.) 75,300COLLAPSE
Total area (sq mi) 180
Total area (sq km) 468
Urban-rural population

Urban: (2011) 87.3%
Rural: (2011) 12.7%

Life expectancy at birth

Male: (2012) 80.4 years
Female: (2012) 84.7 years

Literacy: percentage of population age 15 and over literate

Male: 100%
Female: 100%

GNI per capita (U.S.$) (2009) 43,770

1Roman Catholicism enjoys special recognition in accordance with Andorran tradition.

2Andorra uses the euro as its official currency even though it is not a member of the EU.

Background of Andorra

Andorrans live in seven valleys that form Andorra's political districts. Andorrans are a minority in their own country; they make up only approximately 37% of the population or about 31,500 native Andorrans. Spanish, French, and Portuguese residents make up the other 63% of the population.

Anorra, small independent European coprincipality situated among the southern peaks of the Pyrenees Mountains and bounded by France to the north and east and by Spain to the south and west. It is one of the smallest states in Europe. The capital is Andorra la Vella.


Geography of Andorra

Andorra consists of a cluster of mountain valleys whose streams unite to form the Valira River. Two of these streams, the Madriu and the Perafita, flow into the Madriu-Perafita-Claror valley, which occupies about one-tenth of Andorra’s land area and is characterized by glacial landscapes, steep valleys, and open pastures. The valley was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2004.

Andorra has traditionally had a strong affinity with the region of Catalonia in northern Spain. Andorra’s official language is Catalan (Spanish and French are also spoken); its institutions are based in Catalonian law, and a large proportion of the Spanish immigrants (or their descendants) in Andorra are Catalan. Most Andorrans are Roman Catholic; Andorra is part of the diocese of Urgel. More than nine-tenths of the population is classified as urban, and some two-thirds of residents are foreign nationals, mainly from Spain, France, and Portugal.

With only a tiny proportion of Andorra’s land cultivable, the traditional economy centred on the pasturing of sheep and the harvesting of modest quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, olives, grapes, and potatoes. Industry was limited to processing these products and to handicrafts. Because of the lack of customs duties and low or nonexistent taxes, Andorra has become an important international centre of retail trade that has attracted millions of shoppers from all over Europe with its duty-free imported consumer goods, including alcoholic beverages, electronic devices, tobacco, and clothing. Tourism is another of Andorra’s leading industries, and the area has excellent opportunities for winter sports. The construction industry flourished in response to the increase in tourism. The banking sector is also economically significant. Although not a member of the European Union, Andorra has used the euro as its de facto primary currency since 2002. In July 2011 Andorra concluded a monetary agreement with the EU that made the euro its official currency, although the Andorran government was not granted the power to issue its own euro banknotes. No railway system exists, but good roads link Andorra with France and Spain, and the principality is served by a small airport in Seo de Urgel, Spain. The University of Andorra was established in 1997; it has faculties in nursing, computer studies, and virtual studies and continuing education. Virtually all Andorrans are literate.

Historically, the coprinces (the French president and the bishop of Urgel) represented Andorra internationally and jointly headed the government through their delegates. The elected members of Andorra’s unicameral legislature, the 28-member General Council of the Valleys, were responsible for internal administration and functioned as both an informal legislature and a cabinet headed by a prime minister. The 1993 constitution, approved by Andorran voters in a referendum, changed this structure and transferred most of the powers of the coprinces to the General Council, which became a true national parliament elected by universal suffrage. Every four years, the General Council elects an Executive Council president who heads the government and who then chooses cabinet members.

The government was newly empowered to raise revenues through taxation, to create an independent judiciary, to give citizens the right to form political parties and trade unions, and to control its foreign policy and join international organizations. The coprinces remained the constitutional heads of state, though this role was largely ceremonial. In the early 21st century the main political parties were the centre-right Democrats for Andorra, the Social Democratic Party, and the Lauredian Union.

  • Area: total: 468 sq km,land: 468 sq km, water: 0 sq km
  • Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
  • Land boundaries: total: 118 km
  • border countries: France 55 km, Spain 63 km
  • Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
  • Location Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
  • Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
  • Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  • Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
  • Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
  • Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
  • Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m, highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
  • Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
  • Land use: arable land: 5.32%, permanent crops: 0%, other: 94.68% (2011)
  • Natural hazards: avalanches
  • Map references: Europe
  • Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
  • Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Demographics of Andorra

Population :85,458 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.3% (male 6,708/female 6,379)
15-24 years: 9.2% (male 4,078/female 3,766)
25-54 years: 48.7% (male 21,395/female 20,231)
55-64 years: 12.5% (male 5,756/female 4,957)
65 years and over: 14.3% (male 6,145/female 6,043) (2014 est.)

Median age

total: 42.4 years
male: 42.6 years
female: 42.2 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate :0.17% (2014 est.) Birth rate :8.48 births/1,000 population (2014 est.) Death rate:6.82 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.) Net migration rate :0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 87.3% of total population (2011)

rate of urbanization: 0.93% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 23,000 (2011)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.65 years
male: 80.51 years
female: 84.92 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.38 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Drinking water source improved:

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access improved:

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

Nationality

noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups :Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998) Religions:Roman Catholic (predominant) Languages:Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Health expenditures :7.2% of GDP (2011) Physicians density :3.91 physicians/1,000 population (2009 Hospital bed density :2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009) Obesity - adult prevalence rate :25.2% (2008)


People of Andorra Andorrans live in seven valleys that form Andorra's political districts between France and northeast Spain. Andorrans are a minority in their own country; Spanish, French, and Portuguese citizens make up 64.01% of the population.

The national language is Catalan, a romance language related to the Provençal group. French and Spanish also are spoken.

Education law requires school attendance for children up to age 16. A system of French, Spanish, and Andorran public schools provide education up to the secondary level. Schools are built and maintained by Andorran authorities, but teachers are paid for the most part by France or Spain. About 50% of Andorran children attend the French primary schools; the rest attend Spanish or Andorran schools. Andorran schools follow the Spanish curriculum, and their diplomas are recognized by the Spanish education system. In July 1997, the University of Andorra was established. Due to its small student body, the University of Andorra is unable to develop a full academic program, and it serves principally as a center for virtual studies, connected to Spanish and French universities. There are two graduate schools in Andorra--the Nursing School and the School of Computer Science.

Economy of Andorra

Since the establishment of sovereignty with the ratification of the constitution in 1993, Andorra has moved to become an active member of the international community. In July 1993, Andorra established its first diplomatic mission in the world, to the United Nations. In early 1995, the United States and Andorra established formal diplomatic relations. Andorra has also expanded relations with other nations.

Andorra is a full member of the United Nations (UN), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Conference for Commerce and Development (UNCCD), International Center of Studies for Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage (ICCROM), Telecommunications International Union (UIT), International Red Cross, Universal Copyright Convention, European Council, EUTELSAT, World Tourism Organization, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Customs Cooperation Council (CCC), Interpol, and International Monetary Fund among others. Since 1991, Andorra has had a special agreement with the European Union. ---

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. The diet in Andorra is based on consumption of meat, garden vegetables, and some fish. The most common winter dish, in rural and urban zones, is escudella, a soup of veal, chicken, potatoes, and vegetables. Some immigrant communities have different customs: Portuguese eat more cod and Indians, more vegetarian food. Normally, the midday meal is eaten near the workplace in a restaurant.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Many Catholic families still avoid eating meat on Fridays. At the feast of the Virgin of Meritxell, Andorran families often eat outdoors after the solemn midday mass: they consume cold cuts, chicken, and rabbit. The Christmas cycle is also an occasion for the organization of family meals.

Basic Economy. Until about the middle of the twentieth century, the Andorran economy was based on transhumant shepherding and the breeding of cattle and horses. Andorrans also grew some tobacco, while agriculture was oriented to the production of cereals, potatoes, and garden vegetables. Because of the climate, the rocky relief, and the small size of its territory, the country always ran a deficit in agricultural production. Today, due to the commercial orientation of its economy, agriculture has disappeared. Only tobacco survives, with its production tripling since the early 1970s. Coupled with enormous quantities of imported tobacco, this production feeds a strong tobacco industry serving visitors to the country (as well as smuggling). Almost all that Andorrans consume and sell to millions of visitors comes from importation, principally from Spain and France but also from Japan and other countries of the Far East. Yet another extremely important economic activity for the Andorran economy is the banking sector, because of the nation's condition as a "fiscal paradise."

Land Tenure and Property. Most Andorran land is of communal ownership, including the woods and alpine meadows that occupy more than 80 percent of the territory. This situation recurs throughout the Pyrenees, originating in medieval local codes. Private property is found near villages, constituted by homes, rural structures, cultivated fields, and gardens. The exploitation of goods is managed by local administrations ( comuns ) which, in addition, also exercise many functions typical of city halls. The benefits of the exploitation of these goods revert to citizens in the form of infrastructure, equipment, creation of work, scholarships for students, and social service endeavors. Today, four of the seven municipal units ( parroquies ) that form the country have one or more winter resorts, from which they also gain great benefits. The only properties of the state are the courses and banks of the rivers, and roads and highways.

Commercial Activities. Andorra has always had fluid commercial relations with France and Spain, including smuggling. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and the World War II (1939–1945), the volume of exchanges increased, since Andorra was a platform through which to supply belligerent nations. In addition, the economic isolation of Spain during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, from 1939 to 1975, favored the commercial activity of Andorra, which supplied equipment, machine parts, vehicles, and other consumer goods. The foundation of the new Andorran economy, however, is retail commerce in major consumer goods, oriented toward buyers in nearby regions of Spain and France.

Major Industries. Andorra's industrial development is extremely limited. Apart from tobacco, the most important industry is construction along with its derivative industries, hospitality industries, and semi-artisanal activities such as jewelry.

Trade. Commerce and tourism are based on the importation of all goods and services from third countries. There are sixty import-export companies handling such goods as gasoline, automobiles, beverages, tobacco, machinery, optical and electronic products, food, clothing, and shoes. Electronic goods come from Japan and other Asian sources, while the rest come from Europe.

Division of Labor. Large Andorran firms belong almost exclusively to Andorran citizens, although there are also some enterprises founded by Spaniards and Frenchmen who have acquired citizenship through their years of residence. Foreigners, Spanish and French, dominated professional positions until recently; high enrollments of university students have fostered a process of nationalization in this occupational level. Employment in construction, transport, commerce, and public services (police and sanitation), like work in hotels, tend to employ resident alien workers depending on their ability and level of instruction.

Andorra Government type

    1. Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Urgell, whose diocese is located in neighboring Spain; both co-princes maintain offices and representatives in Andorra
    2. Definition: This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. (Note that for some countries more than one definition applies.):
    3. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.e., without any laws, constitution, or legally organized oposition.
    4. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
    5. Authoritarian - a form of government in which state authority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens' lives.
    6. Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.
    7. Communist - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society).
    8. Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government.
    9. Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government.
    10. Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.
    11. Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.
    12. Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
    13. Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.
    14. Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).
    15. Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church.
    16. Emirate - similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
    17. Federal (Federation) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.
    18. Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives
    19. Islamic republic - a particular form of government adopted by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.
    20. Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
    21. Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism.
    22. Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.
    23. Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority.
    24. Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.
    25. Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament.
    26. Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function.
    27. Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).
    28. Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable).
    29. Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
    30. Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.
    31. Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
    32. Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority.
    33. Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.

Andorra Political Life

Government. Following the 1993 constitution, Andorra is a parliamentary coprincipality, headed by the president of France and the bishop of Urgel. The Andorran parliament (the General Council) includes twenty-eight members, half elected by local constituencies and half by national votes. This system seeks an equilibrium between territory and demography. Elections are held every four years. The winning parliamentary group forms the government...>>>read on<<<

Culture of Andorra

ndorra’s ancient culture began with the Romans and was influenced by the region’s location close to several mountain passes leading to northern Europe. Over the centuries, Spain, Italy, and France played a strong part in its development into a primarily Catalonian area with Catalan its main language. Its most valued cultural asset is the long legacy of Romanic art, most visible in its 50 Romanesque churches and their interior murals and frescos, as well as in the displays in Andorran museums.

An essential and ongoing part of Andorran culture is its folk dances, performed with pride and enthusiasm at festivals and other events. Dances such as the contrapas and marraxta are Catalan in character, and have been passed down through the ages with little change. Music is also a strong part of Andorran culture and has expanded to embrace both classical and modern styles such as jazz and orchestral concerts. Additionally, traditional Catalan cuisine is considered a vital part of the state’s cultural glories.

The varied and rich Catalan folklore is a part of everyday life in the principality, with the roots of colorful legends and tales set as far away as Andalusia and the Netherlands. Literature is also important, with several famous writers from the 18th century and on making significant contributions to the country. Geographically isolated and traditionally tied to France and Spain, Andorra has developed its own significantly individual culture, which has only recently been affected by the arrival of a vast number of tourists from across the world.


History of Andorra

Andorra’s independence is traditionally ascribed to Charlemagne, who recovered the region from the Muslims in 803, and to his son Louis I (the Pious), who granted the inhabitants a charter of liberties. Charlemagne’s grandson, Charles II, granted Andorra to the counts of Urgel, from whom it passed to the bishops of Urgel. Andorra’s dual allegiance to two princes, one in Spain and one in France, originated in the late 13th century in a proprietary quarrel between the Spanish bishops of Urgel and the French heirs to the countship of Urgel. Andorra was subsequently governed jointly by representatives of the Spanish bishop of Urgel and of the French head of state, each of whom received an annual payment of a token tribute. This feudal system of government remained intact until 1993, when a constitution was adopted that greatly reduced the power of the coprinces and established separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Andorra subsequently joined the United Nations (1993) and the Council of Europe (1994).


History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. The origins of Andorra can be situated between the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods. The archaeological site of Balma Margineda dates back eight thousand years, although full territorial occupation was not achieved until 2000 B . C . E . During the Roman era, Andorra had a stable population. Until the epoch of Arab occupation in the eighth century, Iberian populations mixed with peoples arriving from central Europe. At the beginning of the ninth century, the area was repopulated. The first document that refers to Andorra is the Act of Consecration of the Cathedral of Urgel (839 C . E .). In the eighth and ninth centuries, Andorra belonged to the County of Barcelona, which ceded sovereignty over the valleys of Andorra in 988 to the Episcopal see of Urgel (Spain).

At the end of the thirteenth century, after conflicts between the bishop of Urgel and the count of Foix, a Judicial Decision ( Pareatge ) was signed in 1278 that established the regime of coprinces that remains today. Currently, the two coprinces of Andorra are the president of the French Republic and the bishop of Urgel. Medieval rights over Andorra passed from the count of Foix to the king of Navarre in the fifteenth century, and then to the king of France in the sixteenth century; in the nineteenth century, they passed to the president of the republic.

National Identity. Historically, Andorra has been a protectorate of France and Spain. This is manifest in several ways: (1) the currencies of the nation are the franc and the peseta; (2) the two systems of public education were, until 1982, the French and the Spanish; and (3) the two languages most commonly spoken are French and Spanish, in addition to Catalan. This dualism has been expressed in multiple ways in recent centuries; Andorran factionalism also always has a pro-Spanish front and a pro-French front.

Today, however, both state political powers and Andorran civil society have endeavored to consolidate a national identity that takes as its symbolic referents its medieval past, mythologizing the political peculiarity of the Pareatges. Andorrans also identify themselves as a mountain society and have a special interest in leading sociopolitical and economic movements of the Pyrenean regions. The third pillar of identity is "Catalanness" ( catalanitat ), which it shares with 11 million persons in the northeast of Spain and the southeast of France.

Ethnic Relations. As a culture shaped by transhumant (seasonally transient) shepherds in the past and international merchants in the present, Andorrans are open in character and interethnic relations are not conflictive. Moreover, almost all immigrants come from European nations; hence, cultural differences are not strident.

Encamp Andorra

Encamp, village, Andorra, on a headstream of the Valira River. Its agricultural economy is supplemented by tourism, especially skiing. Encamp has a broadcasting transmitter of Radio Andorra. Above the village is Engolasters Lake, accessible by cable car. There are facilities for generating hydroelectric power. In the locality is Pessons Peak (9,400 feet [2,865 metres]). Pop. (2006 est.) 8,531.

Andorra la Vella

National capital, Andorra

Andorra la Vella, ( Catalan: “Andorra the Old”) , French Andorre la Vieille, Spanish Andorra la Vieja, town, capital of the independent coprincipality of Andorra. It lies near the confluence of the Valira and the Valira del Norte rivers in the narrow Gran Valira valley, on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees.

Andorra la Vella long remained relatively isolated from the outside world. Its modernization began in the 1930s with the construction of carriage roads, and its population increased after World War II as a result of the growth of the tourist industry. In the 1960s and ’70s Andorra la Vella was transformed from a rustic town into a busy commercial centre catering to shoppers and tourists. Winter sports areas are nearby. Because of Andorra’s duty-free status, the town is now primarily a retail shopping centre for goods imported from elsewhere in Europe and from Asia. The General Council (Andorra’s parliament) meets in Andorra la Vella. The town is connected by road to the Spanish and French frontiers and shares in both cultures. Pop. (2004 est.) 22,035.

Andorra in 2012

Andorra Area: 468 sq km (180 sq mi) Population (2012 est.): 86,500 Capital: Andorra la Vella Heads of state: Co-princes of Andorra, the president of France and the bishop of Urgell, Spain Head ...>>>Read On<<<


Andorra in 2004

Andorra Area: 464 sq km (179 sq mi) Population (2004 est.): 67,600 Capital: Andorra la Vella Chiefs of state: Co-princes of Andorra, the president of France and the bishop of Urgell, Spain Head...>>>Read On<<<

Disclaimer

This is not the official site of this country. Most of the information in this site were taken from the U.S. Department of State, The Central Intelligence Agency, The United Nations, [1],[2], [3], [4], [5],[6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14],[15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24],[25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],[31], [32], [33], [34], and the [35].

Other sources of information will be mentioned as they are posted.